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2019 has been designated the International Year of the Periodic Table as it is the 150th Anniversary of the formulation of Mendeleev's Tabelle I

Internet Database of Periodic Tables


There are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but this is the only comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Dr Mark R Leach.

Use the buttons below to select from the 1000+ Periodic Tables in the database:

pre 1900 formulations 1900 to 1949 formulations 1950 to 1999 formulations 2000 to 2009 formulations Spiral formulations 3 dimensional formulations
Data mapping periodic tables Miscellaneous periodic tables Books and reviews non-chemistry periodic tables All periodic tables

Or, select:     Search by Year:      Text search:



Periodic Tables providing data about the chemical elements, rather than novel formulations:

2012     94 Elements: The Stuff of Everything
2012     Abundance: Earth's Crust
2007     Abundance: Solar System
2018     Acid-Base Behavior of 100 Element Oxides
1998     American Elements
2008     American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database Periodic Table
2001     Analytical Chemist's Periodic Table
2015     Anomalous Electronic Structures
2006     Astronomer's Periodic Table
2004     Atomic Emission Spectra Periodic Table
2005     Atomic Radii Periodic Table
2012     Atoms, Orbitals & The Periodic Table
2013     Averaged Ionisation Potential Periodic Table
1870     Baker's Electronegativity Table
1836     Berzelius' Electronegativity Table
2010     Bing Periodic Table
2004     Biologist's Periodic Table
2019     Bloomberg Businessweek Special Issue: The Elements
2019     Bloomberg Businessweek: Why the Periodic Table of Elements Is More Important Than Ever
1858     Cannizzaro's Letter
2010     Cartogram Periodic Tables
2011     Chem 13 News Periodic Table Project
2003     Chemical & Engineering News Periodic Table
2019     Chemical Bonds, Periodic Table of
2010     Chemical Elements as a Collection of Images
2004     Chemical Thesaurus Periodic Table
2005     Chemical Thesaurus Reaction Chemistry Database Periodic Table
2004     Cognitive Classroom's Periodic Table of Atoms
2016     Collective Work of Chemists
2010     Compilation of Minimum and Maximum Isotope Ratios of Selected Elements
2014     Correspondences Between The Classical Thomson Problem and The Periodic Table of The Elements
2013     County of Discovery Periodic Table
1808     Dalton's Elements
2012     Dates of Discovery of the Elements
1831     Daubeny's Teaching Display Board & Wooden Cubes of Atomic Weights
2009     Download Excel, Word & PDF Periodic Tables for Printing, etc.
2010     Dynamic Periodic Table
2003     Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of The Elements and Their Ions
2000     Electron Affinity
2008     Electron Slell Periodic Table
2013     Electronegativity Chart (Leach)
2003     Electronegativity Periodic Table
2013     Electronic Configuration Periodic Table
2006     Element Collection Periodic Table
1955     Element Hunters
2019     Element Scarcity, Periodic Table of
2004     Elemental Hydride Types Periodic Table
2004     Elemental Oxidation States
1970     Elements According to Relative Abundance
2011     Elements in Bottles Periodic Table
2006     Elements in Fireworks
2015     Elements: A Series of Business Radio Programs/Podcasts
1987     Elsevier's Periodic Table of the Elements
2016     Emission Spectra of the Elements Poster
2007     Extending the Periodic Table
2005     Extraction from Ore to Pure Element
2018     First Ionisation Energy to the Standard Form Periodic Table
1937     Geochemical Periodic Table (Goldschmidt Classification)
2005     Geologist's Periodic Table
2007     Gray's Photographic Periodic Table
1998     Gray's Wooden Periodic Table Table
2019     Group 3 of The Periodic Table
2006     Group Numbering Systems
1919     Hackh's Periodic Chain
2019     Heritage Periodic Table Display
2004     Inorganic Chemist's Periodic Table
2002     Inorganic Chemist's Periodic Table
2008     Instruments, Periodic Table of
2010     Ionic Radii Database Periodic Table
2005     Ionic Radii Periodic Table
2012     iPhone, Periodic Table of
2014     IQS Periodic Tables
1969     Island of Stability
2018     IUPAC Periodic Table of The Elements
2012     IUPAC Periodic Table of the Isotopes
2012     JR's Chemistry Set
2019     Leach's Empirical Periodic Table
1964     Lee's Quantum Number Periodic Table
2010     Lewis Octet Periodic Table
1963     Life Science Library Periodic Table
1995     Live! Periodic Table
1787     Méthode de Nomeclature Chimique
2004     Mass Anomaly Periodic Table
2004     Material Type Periodic Table
2007     Mechanical Engineer's Periodic Table
2014     Medicinal Chemist's Periodic Table
2019     Medicines, Periodic Table of
2005     Merck Periodic Table of The Elements
2000     Metal Crystal Structure
1996     Metals in Medicine Periodic Table
2005     Minerals by Chemical Composition
2018     Murov's Colours of the Elements
2019     Nature's IYPT Interactive Periodic Table
2018     Nawa's V.E.T. Periodic Table & Hourglass
2010     NIST Atomic Physical Reference Data
1998     NMR Nuclear Spin Periodic Table(s)
2019     Nucleosynthesis of the Heavy Elements
2010     Nucleosynthesis Periodic Tables
2018     Number of Stable Isotopes by Element
1914     Oddo-Harkins Rule
1936     Orbital Filling
2009     Orbitron Gallery of Atomic Orbitals
2004     Organic Chemist's Periodic Table
2018     Organic Chemist's Periodic Table (another one)
2008     Organometallic Periodic Table
1942     Paneth's Table
1960     Pauling's Complete Electronegativity Scale
2008     Periodic Table X
2011     Periodicity Periodic Table
2017     PeriodicStats
2004     Phase State: Solid, Liquid, Gas at 20°C & 700°C
2016     Pictures & Words
2018     Places of the Periodic Table
1997     Ptable
2006     Radioactivity Periodic Table
2010     Recipe For A Human Shirt
2016     Rejected Element Names, Periodic Table of
2013     RSC Visual Elements Periodic Table: Alchemy
2014     Schaeffer's IUPAC Periodic Table Quantum Mechanics Consistent
2012     Schematic Periodic Table of Double-Charged Cations
2013     Scientific American Interactive Periodic Table
1983     Seawater Periodic Table
1960     Sistema Periodico Degli Elementi
2005     Smart Elements
2013     Spider Chart of The Periodic Table of Chemical Elements
2015     STEM Sheets Printable (& Customizable) Periodic Table of Elements
2005     Student's Periodic Table
2011     Suggested Periodic Table Up To Z r 172, Based on Dirac-Fock Calculations
2006     Superconducting Elements
2018     Superconductivity of Hydrides Periodic Table
2015     Sweetners: a Periodic Table
2017     Technology, Periodic Table of
2018     Timelines, of The Periodic Table
2019     Toma's Periodic Tables
2019     Ultimate Periodic Table by Goodfellow
2010     Upper Limit in Mendeleev's Periodic Table - Element No.155
2014     URENCO Periodic Table
2008     Videos, Periodic Table of
2004     Visual Elements Periodic Table
2018     Waterloo Periodic Table Project/Projet Tableau Périodique
1993     WebElements: The Periodic Table on The Web
2016     Where Your Elements Came From Periodic Table
1934     White's Periodic Table
2001     Wikipedia Periodic Table
1813     Wollaston's Synoptic Scale of Chemical Equivalents
2010     World's Smallest Periodic Table
1996     X-ray Absorption Edges Periodic Table


2012

94 Elements: The Stuff of Everything

There are 94 naturally occuring elements, from hydrogen to plutonium. Together they make up everything in the world.

94 Elements is a global filmmaking project, exploring our lives through the lens of the elements. Everything that surrounds us is made from these 94 building blocks, each with its own properties and personality. Our own bodies are mostly made from just 6 of them.

The stories of the elements are the stories of our own lives. They reveal the patterns of our economies and the state of our relationships with our natural resources. The project is in part a celebration of the art of documentary film and some of the best filmmakers working today are making new films for the project. There'll also be opportunities for talented new and emerging filmmakers and animators to pitch their own films, with the winners chosen by you - the project community.

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2012

Abundance: Earth's Crust

From Mark Winter's WebElements an infographic of the abundance of elements in the Earth's crust by weight:

Fictional Elements

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2007

Abundance: Solar System

From Wikipedia, a chart of Solar System Abundances:

<Eight-Group Periodic Table>

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2018

Acid-Base Behavior of 100 Element Oxides

Acid-Base Behavior of 100 Element Oxides: Visual and Mathematical Representations by Mikhail Kurushkin and Dmitry Kurushkin. J. Chem. Educ.  95, 4, 678-681.

A novel educational chart that represents the acid-base behavior of 100 s-, p-, d-, and f-element oxides depending on the element's electronegativity and oxidation state was designed. An updated periodic table of said oxides was developed. A mathematical criterion based on the chart was derived which allows prediction of the behavior of unfamiliar oxides:

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1998

American Elements

Supplier & Element Industrial Information: American Elements

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2008

American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database Periodic Table

A periodic table front end to the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database.

Clicking on an element gives access to the database searches. Conveniently, sets of elements can be selected or excluded:

American Mineralogist

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2001

Analytical Chemist's Periodic Table

This PT gives information about storage and analysis of the elements.

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2015

Anomalous Electronic Structures

Eric Scerri has supplied two periodic tables showing "anomalous configurations for gas phase atoms, highlighted in yellow, and for condensed phase atoms, purple." (The f-block anomalies for condensed phase are yet to be calculated.)

Read more in Eric's short article for the RSC.

Anomalous Electronic Structures

Anomalous Electronic Structures

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2006

Astronomer's Periodic Table

Highly amusing for chemists is the astronomer's periodic table because astronomers consider there to be three types of element:

  • hydrogen
  • helium
  • metal

    Yup, cosmologists and other professional star gazers consider all elements, atomic number three and up, to be metals.

By Mark Leach

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2004

Atomic Emission Spectra Periodic Table

Department of Chemistry at PennState has a dynamic periodic table, here, which shows the atomic emission spectra of the elements:

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2005

Atomic Radii Periodic Table

By Mark Leach

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2012

Atoms, Orbitals & The Periodic Table

One of several animations and explanations/realisations of quantum physics from Data-Burger, scientific advisor: J. Bobroff, with the support of: Univ. Paris Sud, SFP, Triangle de la Physique, PALM, Sciences à l'Ecole, ICAM-I2CAM.

Mark Leach writes:

"What I particularly like about this video is that it shows the quantum fuzziness of the atoms. This explains/shows how and why induced-dipole/induced-dipole (London force) interactions occur, an important class of van der Waals interaction. At any moment, the electron distribution is not perfectly spherical, which means that there is an instantaneous dipole on the atom. This instantaneous dipole is able to induce a dipole on an adjacent atom, with the effect that the two atoms are attracted when they touch. It is as if atoms are 'sticky' like Velcro.

"This effect explains why the Group 18 noble gas elements are able to form liquids and solids [not He] at low temperatures, and why non-polar molecules, such as P4, S8 and hydrocarbons are able to condense."

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2013

Averaged Ionisation Potential Periodic Table

By Leland Allen, a representation of the periodic table with the third dimension of energy derived from the averaged ionisation potentials of the s and p electrons. (Allen suggested that this was a direct measure of electronegativity). From J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1989, 111, 9004:

Averaged Ionisation Potential

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1870

Baker's Electronegativity Table

Baker's electronegativity table of 1870 differs from Berzelius' listing of 1836 only by the addition of the newly discovered elements. Page 280 and ref. 5 from Bill Jensen's: Electronegativity from Avogadro to Pauling Part II: Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Developments, J. Chem. Educ., 80, 279-287 (2003):

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1836

Berzelius' Electronegativity Table

Berzelius' electronegativity table of 1836.

The most electronegative element (oxygen or Sauerstoff) is listed at the top left and the least electronegative (potassium or Kalium) lower right. The line between hydrogen (Wasserstoff) and gold seperates the predomently electronegative elements from the electropositive elements. Page 17 and ref. 32 from Bill Jensen's Electronegativity from Avogadro to Pauling Part I: Origins of the Electronegativity Concept, J. Chem. Educ., 73, 11-20 (1996):

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2010

Bing Periodic Table

Microsoft's Bing search engine has a rather extensive way of finding element data & information that avoids any formal PT representation:

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2004

Biologist's Periodic Tables

A periodic table showing where biologically essential (green), essential trace (purple), toxic (red), radioactive (yellow) and of low – but not zero– biological impact (gray) elements are found. Only highly toxic elements are shown in red. Li (as Li+) is biologically active and is used as an antidepressant.

By Mark Leach

or here:

 

And a periodic table for biologists from Science Videos:

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2019

Bloomberg Businessweek Special Issue: The Elements

A Bloomberg Businessweek Special Issue on The Elements.

Using state of the art [2019] web graphics, and packed with interesting business stories:

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip! 
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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2019

Bloomberg Businessweek: Why the Periodic Table of Elements Is More Important Than Ever

A Bloomberg Businessweek article on the chemical elements: Mendeleev's 150-year-old periodic table has become the menu for a world hungry for material benefits. (This story is from Bloomberg Businessweek's special issue The Elements.)

Thanks to Roy Alexander for the tip! 

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1858

Cannizzaro's Letter

Letter of Professor Stanislao Cannizzaro to Professor S. De Luca: Sketch of a Course of Chemical Philosophy given in the Royal University of Genoa, Il Nuovo Cimento, vol. vii. (1858), pp. 321-366.

Read the full letter/paper, in English translation, here.

Many thanks to Carmen Giunta, Professor of Chemistry Emeritus, Le Moyne College who provided the information about, and link to, Cannizzaro's Letter. See a list of other classic chemistry papers.

Cannizzaro writes:

"I believe that the progress of science made in these last years has confirmed the hypothesis of Avogadro, of Ampère, and of Dumas on the similar constitution of substances in the gaseous state; that is, that equal volumes of these substances, whether simple or compound, contain an equal number of molecules: not however an equal number of atoms, since the molecules of the different substances, or those of the same substance in its different states, may contain a different number of atoms, whether of the same or of diverse nature."

From the Science History of Science Institute:

"In 1858 Cannizzaro outlined a course in theoretical chemistry for students at the University of Genoa,where he had to teach without benefit of a laboratory. He used the hypothesis of a fellow Italian, Amedeo Avogadro, who had died just two years earlier, as a pathway out of the confusion rampant among chemists about atomic weights and the fundamental structure of chemical compounds."

Mark Leach writes:

"Before a periodic table of the chemical elements – which orders the elements by atomic weight and then groups them by property – could be developed it was necessary to know the atomic weight values. However, to deduce the atomic weights was a problem as it was necessary to know the ratios of how the elements combined, the stoichiometry.

"Tables of atomic weight data by Dalton (1808), Wollaston (1813) and Daubeny (1831) show progress, but the 1858 Cannizzaro letter was the first where the atomic weight data is more or less both complete and accurate.

"I have extracted the element atomic weight data from the paper, and given the % error with respect to modern atomic weight/mass data. Only titanium is significantly out! It is clear that Cannizzaro knew that hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, chlorine, bromine & iodine existed as diatomic molecules."

Element Symbol Cannizzaro's Weight Modern Weight/Mass % error
Hydrogen H 1 1.008 -0.8%
Boron B 11 10.81 1.7%
Carbon C 12 12.011 -0.1%
Nitrogen N 14 14.007 0.0%
Oxygen O 16 15.999 0.0%
Sodium Na 23 22.99 0.0%
Magnesium Mg 24 24.305 -1.3%
Aluminium Al 27 26.982 0.1%
Silicon Si 28 28.085 -0.3%
Sulphur S 32 32.06 -0.2%
Phosphorus P 32 30.974 3.2%
Chlorine Cl 35.5 35.45 0.1%
Potassium K 39 39.098 -0.3%
Calcium Ca 40 40.078 -0.2%
Chromium Cr 53 51.996 1.9%
Manganese Mn 55 54.938 0.1%
Iron Fe 56 55.845 0.3%
Titanium Ti 56 47.867 14.5%
Copper Cu 63 63.546 -0.9%
Zinc Zn 66 65.38 0.9%
Arsenic As 75 74.922 0.1%
Bromine Br 80 79.904 0.1%
Zirconium Zr 89 91.224 -2.5%
Silver Ag 108 107.87 0.1%
Tin Sn 117.6 118.71 -0.9%
Iodine I 127 126.9 0.1%
Platinum Pt 197 195.08 1.0%
Mercury Hg 200 200.59 -0.3%
Lead Pb 207 207.2 -0.1%
Diatomic Molecule Formula Cannizzaro's Weight Modern Weight/Mass % error
Hydrogen H2 2 2.016 -0.8%
Oxygen O2 32 31.998 0.0%
Sulphur S2 64 64.12 -0.2%
Chlorine Cl2 71 70.9 0.1%
Bromine Br2 160 159.808 0.1%
Iodine I2 254 253.8 0.1%
Molecule Formula Cannizzaro's Weight Modern Weight/Mass % error
Water H2O 18 18.015 -0.1%
Hydrochloric Acid HCl 36.5 36.458 0.1%
Methane CH4 16 16.043 -0.3%
Hydrogen sulphide H2S 34 34.076 -0.2%
Diethyl ether CH3CH2OCH2CH3 74 74.123 -0.2%
Carbon disulphide CS2 76 76.131 -0.2%
Chloroethane CH3CH2Cl 64.5 64.512 0.0%

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2010

Cartogram Periodic Tables

Webelements have produced a poster with various atomic & elemental properties represented in cartographic form. From the Webelements shop:

"Periodic table cartograms are periodic table grids distorted using a computer algorithm so that the areas of the element squares are in proportion to a periodic table property. This is the first poster to show periodic properties plotted in this way".

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2011

Chem 13 News Periodic Table Project

The Chem 13 News Periodic Table Project celebrates the International Year of Chemistry in 2011.

This collaborative periodic table is designed by chemistry students from all Canadian provinces and territories, 20 US states and 14 different countries. Chem 13 News readers registered their chemistry students to artistically interpret one element. Combined these tiles form one innovative and unique periodic table. A poster of the table and a traveling display are currently being constructed.

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2003

Chemical & Engineering News Periodic Table

A periodic table from C&EN with links to fascinating stories about the chemical elements:

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2019

Chemical Bonds, Periodic Table of

The Max Planck Society (M-P-G, Max-Planck-Gesellschaft) has an article about the hidden structure of the periodic system.

Guillermo Restrepo, MPI for Mathematics in the Sciences:

"A periodic table of chemical bonds: Each of the 94 circles with chemical element symbols represents the bond that the respective element forms with an organic residue. The bonds are ordered according to how strongly they are polarized. Where there is a direct arrow connection, the order is clear: Bonds of hydrogen, for example, are more polarized than bonds of boron, phosphorus, and palladium. The same applies to rubidium in comparison to caesium, which has particularly low polarized bonds and is therefore at the bottom of the new periodic table. If there is no direct arrow between two elements, they may still be comparable – if there is a chain of arrows between them. For example, the bonds of oxygen are more polarized than the bonds of bromine. Bonds represented by the same colour have the same binding behaviour and belong to one of the 44 classes.":

Thanks to Rene for the tip!

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2010

Chemical Elements as a Collection of Images

Using Google Translate (German -> English):

"The periodic table of chemical elements as a collection of images [click to zoom in]. A collection of images of materials constitute the basic components of the whole universe. This is a periodic table of chemical elements (also called short PSE) with a difference! Visible in pure form, as it really looks like. Not only naked dry boring data. There are the alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, boron group, carbon group, nitrogen group, chalcogens, halogens, noble gases, hard metals, ferrous metals, precious metals, lanthanides..." from the website, here:

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2004

Chemical Thesaurus Periodic Table

Search for chemical reagents, atomic and molecular ions, minerals, isotopes, elemental data, etc., using the periodic table built into The Chemical Thesaurus reaction chemistry database:

By Mark Leach

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2005

Chemical Thesaurus Reaction Chemistry Database Periodic Table

A periodic table front end to the Chemical Thesaurus Reaction Chemistry Database Periodic Table. Clicking on an element gives access to database searches of chemical species and their interactions.

A quote neatly sums up what the ChemThes reaction chemistry database project is trying to achieve:

"The Chemical Thesaurus is a reaction chemistry information system that extends traditional references by providing hyperlinks between related information. The program goes a long way toward meeting its ambitious goal of creating a nonlinear reference for reaction information. With its built-in connections, organizing themes, and multiple ways to sort and view data, The Chemical Thesaurus is much greater than the sum of the data in its database.

"The program does an excellent job of removing the artificial barriers between different subdisciplinary areas of chemistry by presenting a unified vision of inorganic and organic reaction chemistry."

K.R. Cousins, JACS, 123, 35, pp 8645-6 (2001)

Chemical Thesaurus Reaction Chemistry Database

By Mark Leach

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2004

Cognitive Classroom's Periodic Table of Atoms

From Cognitive Classroom, a Periodic Table of Atoms. Richard Lambrecht writes:

"We have developed a visual periodic table that groups by orbitals, making He no longer contentious. But by including an orbital cloud, we give the student a great offset to the Bohr model used to place each and every single electron in the periodic table."

Click image or here to enlarge:

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2016

Collective Work of Chemists

From an article on LinkedIn:

Twelve elements were known from the Ancient Times, and were described by Romans and Greeks. The remaining 106 elements have been discovered by scientists of 15 different countries during the last 4 centuries. In addition, 19 elements of those 106 (18%) have been co-discovered by researchers of two countries.

Although some of them (like Bromine or Thallium) were isolated separately at the same time by chemists of different nationalities within the race to discover new elements in 18th-21st centuries, most of them have been obtained since then through collaborative research, like the recently discovered Ununpentium, Ununseptium and Ununoctium.

Another example is the isolation of Radium and Polonium by the Polish Maria Skłodowska-Curie and her French husband, Pierre Curie.

Thus, Periodic Table is the result of a collective and long-term work of hundreds of scientists.

It is noteworthy to see that Russia and United States have discovered mainly artificial elements.

Collective Work of Chemists

Collective Work of Chemists

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2010

Compilation of Minimum and Maximum Isotope Ratios of Selected Elements

Documented variations in the isotopic compositions of some chemical elements are responsible for expanded uncertainties in the standard atomic weights published by the Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.

This report summarizes reported variations in the isotopic compositions of 20 elements that are due to physical and chemical fractionation processes (not due to radioactive decay) and their effects on the standard atomic weight uncertainties. For 11 of those elements (hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, copper, and selenium), standard atomic weight uncertainties have been assigned values that are substantially larger than analytical uncertainties because of common isotope abundance variations in materials of natural terrestrial origin. For 2 elements (chromium and thallium), recently reported isotope abundance variations potentially are large enough to result in future expansion of their atomic weight uncertainties. For 7 elements (magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, molybdenum, palladium, and tellurium), documented isotope-abundance variations in materials of natural terrestrial origin are too small to have a significant effect on their standard atomic weight uncertainties.

Compilation of Minimum and Maximum Isotope Ratios of Selected Elements in Naturally Occurring Terrestrial Materials and Reagents

This report is available as a pdf.

U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Water Resources Investigation Report 01-4222

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2014

Correspondences Between The Classical Thomson Problem and The Periodic Table of The Elements

By Tim (TJ) LaFave, a very detailed pdf discussing the correspondences between the classical Thomson Problem and the Periodic Table of the Elements. You will need to click thru and zoom in:

classical Thomson Problem and the Periodic Table

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2013

County of Discovery Periodic Table

Jamie Gallagher – scientist, engineer, science communicator, salsa teacher and part time comic – has produced a periodic table showing the county of origin of the discoverer:

County of Discovery Periodic Table

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1808

Dalton's Elements

Two pages from John Dalton's A New System of Chemical Philosophy in which he proposed his version of atomic theory based on scientific experimentation (see the scanned book, page 219):

Name Modern Symbol Dalton's Data Modern Values % error
Hydrog. H 1 1 0%
Azote N 5 14 -180%
Carbone C 5 12 -140%
Oxygen O 7 16 -129%
Phosphorus P 9 31 -244%
Sulphur S 13 32.1 -147%
Magnesia Mg 20 24.3 -22%
Lime Ca 24 40.1 -67%
Soda Na 28 23 18%
Potash K 42 39.1 7%
Strontites Sr 46 87.6 -90%
Barytes Ba 68 137.3 -102%
Iron Fe 50 55.8 -12%
Zinc Zn 56 65.4 -17%
Copper Cu 56 63.5 -13%
Lead Pb 90 200.6 -123%
Silver Ag 190 107.9 43%
Gold Au 190 197 -4%
Platina Pt 190 195.1 -3%
Mercury Hg 167 200.6 -20%
  • Dalton states that he is considering "chemical elements or ultimate particles"
  • Dalton assigns hydrogen as having a relative weight of 1.
  • Note the seemingly huge % errors in the atomic weights, compared with modern values.
  • These errors occurred because while Dalton had deduced that atoms combine in fixed (stoichiometric) ratios in compounds, he not always know what the ratios were. Thus there were two unknowns: the atomic weights (masses) and the stoichiometric ratios.

By Mark Leach

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2012

Dates of Discovery of the Elements

The Elements and their dates of discovery, taken from this Wikipedia page:











Two charts showing the dates of discovery of the elements, one from the 'time of the ancients' (10,000 BC) to the present day, and the second from 1700 to the present day.

These show that there were two distinct phases for the discovery of the 118 known elements:

  • The first from about 10,000 BC to 1000 AD when 12 elements were discovered/used; one every 900 years or so.
  • From 1669 until the present day when the other 106 have been rather steadily (and formally) discovered; one every couple of years.
  • The last element to be made/discovered was in 2010.

Data from: this Wikipedia page.

 

Discovery of Copper-9000
Discovery of Lead -7000
Discovery of Gold -6000
Discovery of Iron -5000
Discovery of Silver -5000
Discovery of Carbon -3750
Discovery of Tin -3500
Discovery of Sulfur (Sulphur) -2000
Discovery of Mercury -2000
Discovery of Zinc -1000
Discovery of Antimony -800
Discovery of Arsenic -300
Discovery of Phosphorus 1669
Discovery of Cobalt 1735
Discovery of Platinum 1748
Discovery of Nickel 1751
Discovery of Bismuth 1753
Discovery of Hydrogen 1766
Discovery of Oxygen 1771
Discovery of Nitrogen 1772
Discovery of Chlorine 1774
Discovery of Manganese 1774
Discovery of Molybdenum 1781
Discovery of Tellurium 1782
Discovery of Tungsten 1783
Discovery of Zirconium 1789
Discovery of Uranium 1789
Discovery of Titanium 1791
Discovery of Yttrium 1794
Discovery of Beryllium 1798
Discovery of Chromium 1798
Discovery of Niobium 1801
Discovery of Tantalum 1802
Discovery of Palladium 1803
Discovery of Cerium 1803
Discovery of Osmium 1803
Discovery of Iridium 1803
Discovery of Rhodium 1804
Discovery of Sodium 1807
Discovery of Potassium 1807
Discovery of Boron 1808
Discovery of Magnesium 1808
Discovery of Calcium 1808
Discovery of Strontium 1808
Discovery of Barium 1808
Discovery of Iodine 1811
Discovery of Lithium 1817
Discovery of Selenium 1817
Discovery of Cadmium 1817
Discovery of Silicon 1824
Discovery of Aluminium (Aluminum) 1825
Discovery of Bromine 1825
Discovery of Thorium 1829
Discovery of Vanadium 1830
Discovery of Lanthanum 1838
Discovery of Terbium 1842
Discovery of Erbium 1842
Discovery of Ruthenium 1844
Discovery of Cesium 1860
Discovery of Rubidium 1861
Discovery of Thallium 1861
Discovery of Indium 1863
Discovery of Gallium 1875
Discovery of Ytterbium 1878
Discovery of Scandium 1879
Discovery of Samarium 1879
Discovery of Holmium 1879
Discovery of Thulium 1879
Discovery of Gadolinium 1880
Discovery of Praseodymium 1885
Discovery of Neodymium 1885
Discovery of Fluorine 1886
Discovery of Germanium 1886
Discovery of Dysprosium 1886
Discovery of Argon 1894
Discovery of Helium 1895
Discovery of Neon 1898
Discovery of Krypton 1898
Discovery of Xenon 1898
Discovery of Polonium 1898
Discovery of Radium 1898
Discovery of Radon 1899
Discovery of Europium 1901
Discovery of Actinium 1902
Discovery of Lutetium 1906
Discovery of Protactinium 1913
Discovery of Rhenium 1919
Discovery of Hafnium 1922
Discovery of Technetium 1937
Discovery of Francium 1939
Discovery of Astatine 1940
Discovery of Neptunium 1940
Discovery of Plutonium 1940
Discovery of Americium 1944
Discovery of Curium 1944
Discovery of Promethium 1945
Discovery of Berkelium 1949
Discovery of Californium 1950
Discovery of Einsteinium 1952
Discovery of Fermium 1952
Discovery of Mendelevium 1955
Discovery of Lawrencium 1961
Discovery of Nobelium 1966
Discovery of Rutherfordium 1969
Discovery of Dubnium 1970
Discovery of Seaborgium 1974
Discovery of Bohrium 1981
Discovery of Meitnerium 1982
Discovery of Hassium 1984
Discovery of Darmstadtium 1994
Discovery of Roentgenium 1994
Discovery of Copernicium 1996
Discovery of Flerovium 1999
Discovery of Livermorium 2000
Discovery of Oganesson 2002
Discovery of Nihonium2003
Discovery of Moscovium2003
Discovery of Tennessine2010

By Mark Leach



A nice graphic from Compound Interest: (click image to enlarge)

 

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1831

Daubeny's Teaching Display Board & Wooden Cubes of Atomic Weights

The Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, has a display of Charles Daubeny's teaching materials, including a black painted wooden board with "SYMBOLS OF SIMPLE BODIES": showing symbols, atomic weights and names of elements in two columns, and a small pile of cubes with element symbols.

Charles Daubeny and Chemistry at the Old Ashmolean

Charles Daubeny (1795-1867) was appointed Aldrichian Professor of Chemistry at Oxford in 1822. In 1847 he moved from the original laboratory in this basement [in the museum] to a new one built at his own expense at the Botanic Garden. His apparatus went with him and was preserved there. Daubeny actively campaigned for the teaching of science in Oxford and held several professorships in addition to chemistry. He also conducted research on subjects such as photosynthesis.

From the HSM Database (Inventory no. 17504):

DAUBENY'S LIST OF ATOMIC WEIGHTS Wooden panel, black with white lettering, listing in two columns the symbols and names of twenty elements. This lecture board is identical to the table in the third edition (1831) of E. Turner, 'Elements of Chemistry', apart from the atomic weight for bromine. Daubeny wrote a useful 'Introduction to the Atomic Theory' (published in three versions: 1831, 1840, and 1850), the first edition of which also quotes Turner's table. Probably contemporary with this lecture board are the wooden cubes with the symbols for certain elements.

The period from 1810 to 1860 was crucial in the development of the periodic table. Most of the main group and transition elements had been discovered, but their atomic weights and stoichiometries (combining ratios) had not been fully deduced. Oxygen was assumed to have a weight of 6, and consequently carbon is assumed to have a mass of 6.

Daubeny's element symbols and weights – along with the modern mass data – are tabulated:

Symbol Daubeny's Weight Modern Mass Data % error Stoichiometry Error
H 1 1 0%  
C 6 12 -100% factor of 2
O 8 16 -100% factor of 2
Si 8 28.1 -251% factor of 5 (?)
Al 10 27 -170% factor of 3
Mg 12 24.3 -103% factor of 2
N 14 14 0%  
S 16 32.1 -101% factor of 2
P 16 31 -94% factor of 2
Fl 19 19 0%  
Ca 20 40.1 -101% factor of 2
Na 24 23 4%  
Fe 28 55.8 -99% factor of 2
Cl 36 35.5 1%  
K 40 39.1 2%  
Cu 64 63.5 1%  
B 80 79.9 0%  
Pb 104 207 -99% factor of 2
I 124 127 -2%  
Hg 200 200.6 0%  

While quite a number of weights are close to the modern values, many are way out. However, the error is usually a stiotoimetric factor error.


From the HSM Database (Inventory no. 33732): SET OF WOODEN CUBES ILLUSTRATING ATOMIC WEIGHTS

Forty-two wooden cubes numbered 1-42, painted black with symbols for certain elements, compounds or radicals painted in white on the faces, together with the corresponding atomic, molecular or radical weights. The face markings appear in various combinations:

H C P Na Ca° S N K Fe K Na° Cy
1 6 16 24 28 16 14 40 28 48 32 26 48

A typical cube (no. 3) may be represented by the following figure. They present something of an enigma as their faces do not form an obvious pattern. The numbers indicate that there were 42 cubes. In style they are similar to the figures on the panel of atomic weights.

The cubes are listed in Daubeny's 1861 catalogue, p. 11 as: "Wooden cubes for illustrating atomic weight". [See D. R. Oldroyd, The Chemical Lectures at Oxford (1822-1854) of Charles Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S. Notes and Records of the Royal Society, vol. 33 (1979), pp. 217-259.]

This display was spotted by Eric Scerri who was visiting the museum with Mark Leach in 2010.

There is a virtual tour on the museum, and the above display is in the basement.

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2009

Download Excel, Word & PDF Periodic Tables for Printing, etc.

A periodic table in Excel spreadsheet format by Jeff Bigler of Waltham HS:

An excellent and detailed Two Page .pdf Periodic Table from Consol:

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2010

Dynamic Periodic Table

Michael Dayah's Dynamic Periodic Table, in development since 1997, is a traditional data presentation periodic table with a beautiful, flexible & fast user interface.

For example, when selecting "MP", "BP", "Discovery", etc. a slider appears and the PT changes in colour dynamically to reflect the change. PDF and PNG versions can be downloaded:

Highly recommended!

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2003

Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of The Elements and Their Ions by Bruce Railsback, here


Click to enlarge

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2000

Electron Affinity

In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity of an atom is defined as the energy change when an electron is added to a neutral atom to form a negative ion:

M  +   e    —>    M   +   energy:

Kabbalistic

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2008

Electron Slell Periodic Table

A Wikipedia Periodic Tables of the Elements showing the Electron Shells:

 

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2013

Electronegativity Chart (Leach)

From Mark R Leach's paper, Concerning electronegativity as a basic elemental property and why the periodic table is usually represented in its medium form, Journal & PDF.

Due to the importance of Pauling's electronegativity scale, as published in The Nature of The Chemical Bond (1960), where electronegativity ranges from Cs 0.7 to F 4.0, all the other electronegativity scales are routinely normalised with respect to Pauling's range.

When the Pauling, Revised Pauling, Mulliken, Sanderson and Allred-Rochow electronegativity scales are plotted together against atomic number, Z, the similarity of the data can be observed. The solid line shows the averaged data:

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2003

Electronegativity Periodic Table

A periodic table showing electronegativity, "The ability of an atom to attract electron density from a covalent bond" (Linus Pauling). Blue elements are electronegative, red elements are electropositive, and purple elements are intermediate. Notice how hydrogen is intermediate in electronegativity between carbon and boron and is positioned above and between these elements:

By Mark Leach

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2013

Electronic Configuration Periodic Table

From the Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins, page 1407 published by Springer, 2013 (ISBN: 978-1-4614-1532-9) a periodic table of electronic configurations:

Electronic Configuration  Periodic Table

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2006

Element Collection Periodic Table

It is possible to buy sets of elements presented as a periodic table from RGB Research Ltd.

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1955

Element Hunters

A YouTube video, The Element Hunters.

The text accompanying the video says:

"Scientist in Berkeley discover new elements [Californium & Einsteinium] from hydrogen bomb debris in 1951 and then use the 60 inch Cyclotron to create Mendelevium, element 101. The team included Nobel Prize winner Glenn Seaborg and famed element hunter, Albert Ghiorso."


Thanks to Roy Alexander for the tip! 

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2019

Element Scarcity, Periodic Table of

The European Chemical Society Periodic Table depicting element scarcity was unveiled and discussed at a EuChemS event in the European Parliament on Tuesday 22nd January 2019.

The event, chaired by MEPs Catherine Stihler and Clare Moody, presented an encompassing overview of what element scarcity means for us: both on a scientific level, but also economically and politically. A presentation from speaker Natalia Tarasova, IUPAC Past President, contextualised EuChemS' work within the celebrations of the International Year of the Periodic Table, whilst M Pilar Gil, from the University of St Andrews, delivered a remarkable and exhilarating talk on how the recently discovered oldest known wallchart of the Periodic Table was uncovered and dated.

An article in The Conversation, by David Cole-Hamilton of the University of St Andrews, uses this periodic table to look at elements that are overexploited in the modern world.

"Red indicates that dissipation will make the elements much less readily available in 100 years or less: helium (He), silver (Ag), tellurium (Te), gallium (Ga), germanium (Ge), strontium (Sr), yttrium (Y), zinc (Zn), indium (In), arsenic (As), hafnium (Hf) and tantalum (Ta).

"Helium is used to cool the magnets in MRI scanners and to dilute oxygen for deep sea diving. Vital rods in nuclear reactors use hafnium. Strontium salts are added to fireworks and flares to produce vivid red colours. Yttrium is a component of camera lenses to make them shock and heat resistant. It is also used in lasers and alloys. Gallium, meanwhile, is used to make very high-quality mirrors, light-emitting diodes and solar cells."

Click image to enlarge:

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2004

Elemental Hydride Types Periodic Table

  • Ionic or Salt-Like Hydrides: Molten LiH conducts electricity and hydrogen gas is liberated at the anode confirming presence of hydride ion H. The crystal structures show an ionic lattice, and not an LiH molecular lattice.
  • Covalent Hydrides are formed by the p-Bolock elements.
  • Metallic or Interstitial Hydrides are formed by many d-block and f-block elements when heated with hydrogen under pressure. The hydrides tend to be non-stoichiometric and they may be of variable composition.
  • There is a Hydride Gap where elements do not form hydrides. This roughly maps to the Siderophile Elements of the geologist's periodic table (below).
  • The Intermediate Hydrides do not fit: beryllium hydride is polymeric, (BeH2)n. Others have properties between metallic and covalent.

The main group elemental hydrides are all well known reagent chemicals. The main group hydrides always give the lowest and most common oxidation state, and all chemicals are molecular in the gas phase. The Group I and II hydrides are ionic materials, but they can be vaporised to give the molecular form.

The chemicals present and behave as Lewis acids, Lewis bases or Lewis acid/base complexes, here:

By Mark Leach

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2004

Elemental Oxidation States Periodic Table

The periodic table of fluorides (mainly) shows the range of possible oxidation states. Note that lithium, by way of example, is deemed to have two oxidation states: Li0 (the metal), and Li+ (the lithium ion):

There are a few exceptions and points to note:

  • There is a general increase in the number of possible oxidation states towards the lower right hand side of the periodic table.
  • Nitrogen(V) fluoride, NF5, is not known, but the nitrogen(V) oxide is: N2O5.
  • PtBr2 and PtBr3 are known, but PtF2 and PtF3 are not.
  • All elements are known in the zero oxidation state, but apart from: He, Ne & Ar, and these are not shown in the diagram below.
  • All data is from WebElements.

By Mark Leach

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1970

Elements According to Relative Abundance

A 1970 periodic table by Prof. Wm. F. Sheehan of the University of Santa Clara that claims to show the elements according to relative abundance at the Earth's surface.

Click here to see the full size version with a little more text:

 

However, this author disputes the relative areas given to the various elements; there is almost no helium at the Earth's surface, for example.

Below is a conventional PT representation of the relative abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust taken from Mark Winter's WebElements website:

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2011

Elements in Bottles Periodic Table

A nice web site with a physical periodic table of elements:

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2006

Elements in Fireworks

Fireworks rely on the chemical characteristics of the elements that are used to make them. This special periodic table highlights the elements that have significance to fireworks and pyrotechnics:

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2015

Elements: A Series of Business Radio Programs/Podcasts

A series of BBC World Service Radio Programs, available as MP3 Podcasts, talking about the chemical elements with a strong business/technology bias, rather than the more usual chemical or historical approach:

Quantum Fold Periodic Table

Thanks to Marcus Lynch for the tip!

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1987

Elsevier's Periodic Table of the Elements

Prepared by P. Lof is Elsevier's Periodic Table of the Elements.

This educational wall chart features the periodic table of the elements supported by a wealth of chemical, physical, thermodynamical, geochemical and radiochemical data laid down in numerous colourful graphs, plots, figures and tables. The most important chemical and physical properties of the elements can be found - without turning a page.

All properties are presented in the form of tables or graphs. More than 40 properties are given, ranging from melting point and heat capacity to atomic radius, nuclear spin, electrical resistivity and abundance in the solar system. Sixteen of the most important properties are colour coded, so that they may be followed through the periodic system at a glance. Twelve properties have been selected to illustrate periodicity, while separate plots illustrate the relation between properties. In addition, there are special sections dealing with units, fundamental constants and particles, radioisotopes, the Aufbau principle, etc. All data on the chart are fully referenced, and S.I. units are used throughout.

Designed specifically for university and college undergraduates and high school students, "Elsevier's Periodic Table of the Elements" will also be of practical value to professionals in the fields of fundamental and applied physical sciences and technology. The wall chart is ideally suited for self-study and may be used as a complementary reference for textbook study and exam preparation.

  • atomic number
  • standard atomic weight
  • ground-state electronic configuration
  • element symbol
  • element name
  • discoverer and year of discovery
  • melting point; boiling point
  • critical temperature
  • molar enthalpy of atomization
  • molar enthalpy of fusion
  • molar enthalpy of vaporization
  • atomic energy levels of the outermost three orbitals
  • formal oxidation states
  • selection of standard reduction potentials
  • first, second & third molar ionization energies
  • Pauling electronegativity
  • Allred-Rochow electronegativity
  • molar electron affinity
  • molar volume
  • crystal structures
  • polymorphic transition temperatures
  • atomic radius
  • effective ionic radii
  • volumic mass (density)
  • electrical resistivity
  • thermal conductivity
  • abundance in the solar system
  • abundance in the Orgueil meteorite
  • abundance in the solar photosphere
  • abundance in the continental crust
  • abundance in the primitive mantle
  • abundance in the oceanic crust
  • naturally occurring isotopes
  • mass number and representative isotopic composition
  • molar heat capacity
  • Debye temperature
  • coefficient of linear thermal expansion
  • price; annual mining production
  • world reserve base
  • nuclear spin and NMR receptivity
  • Mossbauer active nuclides
  • physical (standard) state
  • metallic character
  • abundance in food (human daily intake)
  • principal hazardous property
  • Other information: Aufbau principle, quantum numbers, orbitals and sequence of orbital filling; trivial group names; drawings of crystal lattice structures; 12 plots of a chemical/physical property against atomic number; 9 plots of a property against another property; list of SI units and SI prefixes; list of other units and their conversion to SI; list of fundamental physical constants; scheme of fundamental particles; list of radioisotopes with half-life longer than 5 days, presenting half-life and mode(s) of decay, indicating cosmogenic isotopes and isotopes produced by U-235 fission, as well as radioisotopes used in geochronology, pharmacology and nuclear medicine.



Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed

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2016

Emission Spectra of the Elements Poster

Tom Field, President, Field Tested Systems, LLC and Contributing Editor, Sky & Telescope Magazine says: "We have complete redesigned our Emission Spectra of the Elements Poster and put it up for sale."

A couple of links:

www.fieldtestedsystems.com - classroom gas-tube spectroscopy
www.rspec-astro.com - astronomical spectroscopy
Sky & Telescope

Emission Spectra

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2007

Extending the Periodic Table

The periodic table now extends to element 118, Oganesson, and scientists are attempting to go further. Below is part of a Segre chart, proton number on the y-axis and neutron number of the x-axis, from a report from the Japanese Superheavy Element Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN.

The diagram shows various nuclear reactions, for example: 232Th + 40Ar to make 272Hs.

Thanks to Larry Tsimmerman for the tip!

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2005

Extraction from Ore to Pure Element

A periodic table showing how pure elements are extracted:

Highly electropositive elements (Na, K) and electronegative elements (Cl2, F2) can only be obtained by electrolysis.

By Mark Leach

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2018

First Ionisation Energy to the Standard Form Periodic Table

There is debate amongst the cognoscenti about the 'best' representation of the periodic table, and how this 'best' formulation can be explained by [rationalized by] quantum mechanics (QM).

Many feel that the Janet PT formulation, the 'Left Step', is the ideal QM PT, but this formulation does not show periodicity very well, and there are issues with the placement of H, He, Be which spill over into questions about their placement in the standard form PT (the periodic table used in classrooms and textbooks around the world).

However, it is possible to get to the conventional standard form PT directly from the first ionisation energy data, where the 1st ionisation energy is the energy required to convert a gas phase atom (M) into its gas phase positive ion plus electron.

M(g)      →       M+(g)     +     e

The process involves:

  • taking the 1st ionisation data plot for the elements H to Xe (Z = 1 to 36)
  • rotate 90° clockwise and stretch
  • move the atoms horizontally into columns

 

Note that a similar logic can be applied to atomic radius and electronegativity data.

However, there are issues about the measurement of atomic radius, because atoms are 'soft at their edges', and gas phase atomic radius is not precisely defined. And, electronegativity is a derived parameter.

By Mark Leach

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1937

Geochemical Periodic Table (Goldschmidt Classification)

From Wikipedia: The Goldschmidt Classification is a gechemical periodic table which groups the chemical elements within the Earth according to their preferred host phases into:

  • lithophile (rock-loving)
  • siderophile (iron-loving)
  • chalcophile (ore-loving or chalcogen-loving)
  • atmophile (gas-loving)
  • volatile (the element, or a compound in which it occurs, is liquid or gaseous at ambient surface conditions).

Some elements have affinities to more than one phase. The main affinity is given in the table below and a discussion of each group follows that table.

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2005 Geologist's Periodic Table

Atmophile Elements - noble gases and covalently bonded gaseous molecules. The atoms and molecules are attracted by weak van der Waals forces and so these elements remain gaseous at room temperature.

Lithophile Elements - Those elements which form ionic bonds generally have filled outer electron shells. They typically bond to oxygen in silicates and oxides.

Siderophile Elements - The metals near iron in the periodic table that exhibit metallic bonding, have a weak affinity for oxygen and sulfur and are readily soluble in molten iron. Examples include iron, nickel, cobalt, platinum, gold, tin, and tantalum. These elements are depleted in the earth crust because they have partitioned into the earth's iron core.

Chalcophile Elements - The elements that bond to S, Se, Te, Sb, and As. These bonds are predominantly covalent in character.

As discussed in more detail here.

By Mark Leach

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2007

Gray's Photographic Periodic Table

Theodore Gray's Periodic Table.Com is a live version of what is generally regarded as the most beautiful periodic table to be developed so far. It is a treasure trove of pictures, videos and stories. Explore!

Theo is an enthusiast and a collector, and he uses the power of Mathematica (he is a co-founder of Wolfram Research) to drive his astonishing website. It is Theo's aim to be the number one periodic table resource on the web.

Mark Leach, the database curator writes:

"I find Theo's website and approach to be complementary to the more academic WebElements."



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1998

Gray's Wooden Periodic Table Table

Theodore Gray's Wooden Periodic Table Tablea wooden table that incorporates a periodic table – is a treasure trove, both on the web and in reality (his office).

The web site contains over 12 gig of data and beautiful images. Explore!

Theo's new site is periodictable.com.



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2019

Group 3 of The Periodic Table

There are several ways in which the 'common/modern medium form' periodic table are shown with respect to the Group 3 elements and how the f-block is shown. Indeed, there is even some dispute about which elements constitute Group 3.

There are three general approaches (also see Scerri's take and Thyssen's view):

  • Sc, Y, La, Ac
  • Sc, Y than a gap for the lanthanides & a gap for the actinides
  • Sc, Y, Lu, Lr

Which one is 'better'?

The general feeling amongst the knowledgeable is that leaving a gap is not an option, so it comes down to:

Sc, Y, La, Ac     vs.     Sc, Y, Lu, Lr

René Vernon has looked as the properties of the potential Group 3 elements, including: 1st ionisation energies, densities, ionic radii, electron affinity, melting points & 3rd ionisation energies:

Upon reviewing the data, René's comment is that: "The net result is that the two options seem inseparable" and he proposes that IUPAC adopt the following periodic table numbering system:

Professor Sir Martyn Poliakoff's [of the Periodic Videos YouTube channel & Nottiningham University] take on this matter:

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2006

Group Numbering Systems

IUPAC


Phase State: Solid, Liquid, Gas at 20°C & 700°C

By Mark Leach

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1919

Hackh's Periodic Chain

From a Scientific American in March 1919, an article by Ingo W. D. Hackh discussing the classification of the elements.

Included is a periodic chain showing the redox states of the elements:

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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2019

Heritage Periodic Table Display

By Engineered Labs, the Heritage Periodic Table Display.

"Introducing the world's first and only miniature Periodic Table with the actual elements in it.

"Over the last year, we have successfully collected each and every stable element. After considerable R&D, we have finally developed a method of embedding each element in acrylic and we have to say, the result is awesome!

"The Heritage Periodic Table pretty much speaks for itself. The collection looks great on a desk, in your hands, and anywhere else it can be displayed."



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2004

Inorganic Chemist's Periodic Table

Every element has a specialist, somewhere, for whom it is the most important element.

By Mark Leach

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2002

Inorganic Chemist's Periodic Table

An Inorganic Chemist's Periodic Table by Geoff Rayner-Canham, here. This PT was used on the cover of Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry, Third Edition.

The major links in the Periodic Table are those of the Groups and Periods. There are other patterns:

  • The (n) and (n+10) groups linkages (grey)
  • The diagonal relationships (green)
  • The "knights move" relationships (tan)
  • The aluminum-iron link (red)
  • The lanthanoid and actinoid relationships (grey)
  • The "combo" elements (violet)
  • The "pseudo" elements (blue)

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2008

Instruments, Periodic Table of

A periodic table of various scientific instruments and techniques from Thermo Scientific and C&EN.

Download, zoom in & explore the interesting pdf file:

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2010

Ionic Radii Database Periodic Table

By the Atomistic Simulation Group in the Materials Department of Imperial College, a database of ionic radii:

Genetic Code Periodic Table

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2005

Ionic Radii Periodic Table

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2012

iPhone, Periodic Table of

An article in Scientific American Digging for Rare Earths: The Mines Where iPhones Are Born.

"About 60 miles southwest of Las Vegas, in a mine some 500 feet deep, the beginnings of an iPhone come to life. But the sleek, shiny iPhone is far, far removed from the rocks pulled out of this giant hole, which looks like a deep crater on the moon. Inside the rocks from this mine are rare-earth minerals, crucial ingredients for iPhones, as well as wind turbines, hybrid cars, and night-vision goggles. Minerals such as neodymium are used in magnets that make speakers vibrate to create sound. Europium is a phosphor that creates a bright red on an iPhone screen. Cerium gets put into a solvent that workers use to polish devices as they move along the assembly line, etc.":

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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2014

IQS Periodic Tables

By Jordi Cuadros, a set of three pairs of periodic tables in Catalan, English & Spanish pointing out the differences between PT representations of atoms and PT representations of the material substances:

IQS Periodic Table

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1969

Island of Stability

From Wikipedia: The island of stability in nuclear physics describes a set of as-yet undiscovered isotopes of transuranium elements which are theorized to be much more stable than others. The possibility was proposed by Glenn T. Seaborg in the late 1960s: Prospectd for Further Considerable Extension of the Periodic Table, J.Chem.Educ., 46, 626-633 (1969) and reprinted in Modern Alchemy: Selected Papers of Glenn T. Seaborg (1994).

The hypothesis is that the atomic nucleus is built up in "shells" in a manner similar to the structure of the much larger electron shells in atoms. In both cases, shells are just groups of quantum energy levels that are relatively close to each other.

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2018

IUPAC Periodic Table of The Elements

The 1 Dec 2018 IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) Periodic Table of The Elements. For updates to this table click here.

By virtue of its work in relation with the chemical elements, IUPAC can dispense a periodic table that is up-to-date. IUPAC involvement covers various aspects of the table and data that it unveils, and several reports and recommendations, some quite recent, attest of that input. In particular, IUPAC is directly involved in the following:

  1. establishing the criteria for a new element discovery
  2. defining the structure of a temporary name and symbol
  3. assessing claims resulting in the validation and assignation of an element discovery
  4. coordinating the naming of a new element, involving the research laboratory and allowing for public comments
  5. setting up precise rules for how to name a new element
  6. defining Group 1-18 and collective names
  7. determining which elements belong to Group 3
  8. regularly reviewing standard atomic weights

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2012

IUPAC Periodic Table of the Isotopes

The Periodic Table of the Isotopes, published by International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), is now available from the Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights, which is a commission under the Inorganic Division (Division II) of IUPAC.

The text identifies four types of atom, with respect to isotopes:

  • Element has two or more isotopes that are used to determine its standard atomic weight. The isotopic abundances and atomic weights vary in natural terrestrial substances. These variations are well known, and the standard atomic weight is given as lower and upper bounds within square brackets, [ ].

  • Element has two or more isotopes that are used to determine its standard atomic weight. The isotopic abundances and atomic weights vary in natural terrestrial substances, but upper and lower bounds of the standard atomic weight have not been assigned by IUPAC or the variations may be too small to affect the standard atomic weight value. Thus, the standard atomic weight is given as a single value with an uncertainty that includes both measurement uncertainty and uncertainty due to variations in isotopic abundances.

  • Element has only one isotope that is used to determine its standard atomic weight. Thus, the standard atomic weight is invariant and is given as a single value with an IUPAC evaluated measurement uncertainty.

  • Element has no standard atomic weight because all of its isotopes are radioactive and, in natural terrestrial substances, no isotope occurs with a characteristic isotopic abundance from which a standard atomic weight can be determined.

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2012

JR's Chemistry Set

For the iPhone and iPad, JR's Chemistry Set makes chemistry interesting and fun to learn. Based upon the innovative Rota Period, it is a handy and powerful reference tool for chemistry enthusiasts and practitioners at all ages and all levels.

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2019

Leach's Empirical Periodic Table

The common/conventional/standard 'medium form' periodic table is based on the 1945 Seaborg formulation, and it is interesting to explore where this formulation – and its 1939 predecessor – come from. (Interestingly, the Werner formulation of 1905 is not cited as a source and there are no other similar formulations in the (this) Periodic Table Database.)

However, it is possible to get to the common/conventional/standard periodic table directly from two readily available data-sets: (1) first ionisation energy of the gas phase atoms, and (2) atomic radius.

The procedure involved plotting the data, rotating 90°, squeezing vertically and smoothing. The points need a little tidying up, and then they can be mapped directly onto the Seaborg formulation periodic table.

The only element which does no obviously 'line-up' with the periodic table is hydrogen, but many modern periodic tables have H floating as it is not obvious if it should be considered to be a Group 1 alkali metal or a Group 17 halogen.

Note:

There are advantages and disadvantages to each data set. The 1st ionisation energy data from NIST is known with up to seven significant figures of precision, but the data jumps about at times due to the presence of the s & p-orbitals, which appears to make the data a little noisy. (Actually, this 'noise' is embedded information about the electronic structure of the atoms.) The atomic radius gives smoother data, but as gas phase atoms do not have hard edges calculated (Clementi 1967) rather than experimental values, must be used.

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1964

Lee's Quantum Number Periodic Table

In his book Concise Inorganic Chemistry (pp. 22, 5th Ed, Blackwell Science, 1996), J.D. Lee gives a representation of "Quantum numbers, the permissible number of electrons & the shape of the periodic table".

Note: JD Lee taught Inorganic Chemistry to the curator of this database of periodic tables while at university:

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2010

Lewis Octet Periodic Table

A periodic table showing the outer shell of valence electrons associated with Lewis atoms:

By Mark Leach

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1963

Life Science Library Periodic Table

An periodic table in the Life Science Library book, Matter, by Ralph E. Lapp (1963).

The PT is arranged vertically instead of having the usual horizontal format. It is also probably the first book to show pictures of nearly every element, arranged by family:

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1995

Periodic Table Live!

A good site with lots of infomation, pictures & video clips, here:

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1787

Méthode de Nomeclature Chimique

By Louis Bernard Guyton de Morveau (1737-1816), Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794) , Claude-Louis Berthollet (1748-1822) & Antoine-François de Fourcroy (1755-1809) a book: Méthode de Nomeclature Chimique.

The complete scanned book is available. (Click the 'page view' button, or here.)

The book lists the several hundred chemicals known at the time, including chemical elements, and it discusses the nomenclature (naming). Although not a periodic table as such, the information contained in this book was state of the art for 1787.

Click on an image below to enlarge.

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2004

Mass Anomaly Periodic Table

Pairs of atoms where atomic mass does not follow atomic number.

 
Co
=
58.933  
Ni
=
58.69
 
Ar
=
39.948  
K
=
39.098
 
Te
=
127.60  
I
=
126.90

Nature's little quirk – due to the intricacies of nuclear chemistry and isotopic abundance – caused no end of difficulties to the developers of the periodic table in the mid-nineteenth century. Scientists could determine atomic mass, but knew nothing of protons or atomic numbers.

The tellurium-iodine anomaly was a particular problem.

By Mark Leach

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2004

Material Type Periodic Table

All of the the main group elements are common laboratory reagents or chemical in bottles. They appear as metals, metalloid (semi-metals) and non-metals. Most of the non-metals are molecular materials while most of the metalloids have an extended network-covalent structure.

Elsewhere in the chemogenesis web book, material type is discussed in terms of the Laing Tetrahedron, an analysis that classifies binary materials in terms of four extreme types: metallic, ionic, molecular and network. However, none the chemical elements present as ionic materials, only as metals, molecular (van er Waals) and network materials:

The elements B, C, Si, P, S, Ge, As, Se, Sn, Sb and Te can form allotropes: pure elemental substances that can exist with different crystalline structures from the Wikipedia. Allotropes may be metallic, network or molecular.

By Mark Leach

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2007

Mechanical Engineer's Periodic Table

Avallone EA, Baumeister T & Sadegh AM (eds) 2007, Marks' Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 11th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 6-6. Click here for a larger version.

This mech eng PT has a couple of odd features: hydrogen is in Group 17 above fluorine and the lanthanides are split:

Thanks to René for the tip!

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2014

Medicinal Chemist's Periodic Table

From In The Pipeline, a blog posting about a [free, full access] review entitled, Exploration of the medical periodic table: towards new targets.

  • Element symbols in white are known to be essential in man.
  • The ones with a blue background are found in the structures of known drugs.
  • The orange ones are used in diagnostics.
  • The green ones are medically useful radioisotopes.
  • The paper notes that titanium and tantalum are coloured blue due to their use in implants.

Phobia

Phobia

Thanks to Marcus Lynch for the tip!

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2019

Medicines, Periodic Table of

From C. Van Cleave 1 and D. C. Crans, The First-Row Transition Metals in the Periodic Table of Medicine, Inorganics 2019, 7, 111 (Inorganics 2019, 7, 111; doi:10.3390/inorganics7090111, www.mdpi.com/journal/inorganics).

From the paper, specifically the text associated with the figure:

The periodic table with known medicinal uses of each main group or transition metal element when available. In the following, we list the use of each element.

  • Hydrogen (H), boron (B), carbon (C), calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), vanadium (V), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), rubidium (Ru), molybdenum (Mo), and cesium (Cs) are commonly found in supplements readily available to the public and are illustrated as such. Helium (He) is crucial in the operation of MRI machines.
  • Lithium (Li) as lithium carbonate is the most common treatment of bipolar disorder.
  • Beryllium (Be) foil is used as shielding in radiographic instruments.
  • Nitrogen (N), as nitrous oxide, is a common anesthetic.
  • Oxygen (O) has many medical uses, including anesthetics and resuscitation, and is illustrated here for use in ventilation.
  • Fluorine (F) and tin (Sn) as stannous fluoride are a common ingredient in toothpaste.
  • Sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) are used as NaCl in saline solutions.
  • Aluminum (Al) compounds are a common active ingredient in antiperspirant deodorants.
  • Silicon (Si) is used in antacid products.
  • Sulfur (S) is illustrated as campden tablets, which are used for sterilization in beer fermentation.
  • Argon (Ar) lasers are used in eye surgery.
  • Zirconium (Zr) is used in immuno-positron emission tomography (PET) imaging while scandium (Sc) is a candidate for the same technique.
  • Titanium (Ti), palladium (Pd), niobium (Nb), nickel (Ni), and tantalum (Ta) are used in medical implants.
  • Chromium (Cr) is shown as Cr(III) picolinate, which is a controversial supplement used in lowering insulin resistance.
  • Gallium (Ga), yttrium (Y), technetium (Tc), lanthanum (La), astatine (At), and actinium (Ac) are all used in nuclear medicine.
  • Arsenic (As), as As(III) trioxide, is used to treat certain forms of leukemia.
  • Bromine (Br) as KBr is an active ingredient in canine seizure medication.
  • Krypton (Kr) was used in lung ventilation studies but has since been phased out.
  • Strontium (Sr) is used in Sensodyne® toothpaste.
  • Rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), and rhenium (Re) complexes are used as anticancer agents.
  • Silver (Ag) is used in antibacterial ointments.
  • Indium (In) is used in white blood cell scans.
  • Antimony (Sb) is used in leishmania medicine.
  • Barium (Ba) is used in X-ray imaging of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Tungsten (W) is used in shielded syringes.
  • Iridium (Ir) is used in brachytherapy.
  • Gold (Au) was used as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis but has been phased out.
  • Mercury (Hg) is used in dental amalgams.
  • Lead (Pb) is used in X-ray aprons.
  • Bismuth (Bi) is used in stomach ulcer medicine.
  • Neon (Ne), germanium (Ge) cadmium (Cd), tellurium (Tl), hafnium (Hf), osmium (Os), polonium (Po), francium (Fr), radon (Rn), and radium (Ra) although most of these are toxic elements for human life, some of these elements are under development as potential agents for disease treatment but to our knowledge they are not currently used for beneficial applications in medicine.

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2005

Merck Periodic Table of The Elements

The Merck periodic table of the elements, here:

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2000

Metal Crystal Structure Periodic Table

Developed from Dr S.J. Heyes' First Year Inorganic Chemistry lecture notes (Oxford University):

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1996

Metals in Medicine Periodic Table

From Metal Complexes in Aqueous Solutions by Martell & Hancock, a periodic table of metals in medicine.

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2005

Minerals by Chemical Composition

Lists minerals by percent element. From the excellent webmineral mineralogy database:

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2018

Murov's Colours of the Elements

Steven Murov writes :

"The element squares of this periodic table have colors resembling the actual colors of the elements. The table provides insight useful for helping to distinguish metals and non-metals as well as observations on elements of unusual color. The colors were taken from https://www.chemicool.com/ and applied with RGB codes."

The tables are available online at:

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2019

Nature's IYPT Interactive Periodic Table

Nature's IYPT Interactive Periodic Table.

"To celebrate the International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements, our editors have curated research papers, commentaries and multimedia from Nature and the Nature Research journals. Dive in to find out what connects sodium with Sri Lanka, how many times astatine was discovered and where the White House got its name... And much more!"

Thanks to Eric Scerri – who appears – for the tip! 
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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2018

Nawa's V.E.T. Periodic Table & Hourglass

Nagayasu Nawa, the prolific designer of periodic tables, here and here, has come up with an orbital filling periodic table and a corresponding hourglass animation. Nawa writes:

"I have turned the v.e.c. PT into the GIF animation that I call the electron hourglass, 1 second for each element. It takes 120 seconds from 1H to 120 Ubn. I have coloured orbital with colour derived from each shell's name, such as:

  • K kiwi
  • L lapis lazuli
  • M mauve
  • N navy
  • O orange
  • P purple
  • Q quick silver"

Click image to enlarge.

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2010

NIST Atomic Physical Reference Data

Access the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) physical reference data:

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1998

NMR Nuclear Spin Periodic Table(s)

An nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy periodic table giving information the nuclear spins, etc., of the chemical elements, from the Bruker corporation website:

And, another:

 

The range of NMR active nuclei observable on a particular instrument is, in part, a function of the configuration of the spectrometer and the choice of available probes. The periodic tables below identify the nuclei that have resonance frequencies within the detection range of the Lake Forest College Inova and the EFT-60 NMR spectrometers.

The nuclei in red are I=1/2 and yield spectra with narrow, non-overlapping resonances. The nuclei in blue have quadrapolar moments and may give rise to broad or very broad resonances in their spectra.

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2019

Nucleosynthesis of the Heavy Elements

A PBS video explaining how neutron star mergers lead to the formation of heavy elements, and how a merger only 80 million years before the formation of the solar system, 4.5 billions years ago, seeded the Earth wth the heavy elements of the periodic table:

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2010

Nucleosynthesis Periodic Tables

The buildup of heavy elements from lighter ones by nuclear fusion.

Helium, and some lithium, was produced by cosmic (or primordial) nucleosynthesis from 2 to 20 minitues after the Big Bang, here and here:

From the Encyclopedia of Science:

Today most element-building nucleosynthesis takes place in stars.

Stellar nucleosynthesis converts hydrogen into helium, either by the proton-proton chain or by the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle. As a star evolves, a contracting superdense core of helium is produced from the conversion of hydrogen nuclei into helium nuclei.

Eventually, the temperature and pressure inside the core become high enough for helium to begin fusing into carbon. If the star has more than about twice the Sun's mass, a sequence of nuclear reactions then produces heavier elements such as oxygen, silicon, magnesium, potassium, and iron. Successively heavier elements, as far as iron (in the most massive stars) are built up in later stages of stellar evolution by the triple-alpha process. The heaviest elements of all are produced by explosive nucleosynthesis in supernova explosions, by mechanisms such as the p-process, r-process, and s-process:

From FigShare (Athanasios Psaltis):

Our quest to explain the origin of the elements started in the late 1950's by two famous papers independently - E. M. Burbidge et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 547 (1957) & A.G.W. Cameron, Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 69, 201 (1957) - whose authors claimed that the elements are created in astrophysical environments. This is the well-known periodic table of elements, but where each element is labeled by the environment that is created (e.g Supernova explosion etc.).

In 2017 the LIGO gravitional wave detector identified the merger of two neutron stars, an event which produces large quantities of gold, platinum etc. Thus, an updated periodic table of nucleosyntheis looks like this, from an interesting SDSS blog:

Conal Boyce has prepared a Janet Left-Step Nucleosynthesis Periodic Table. Conal writes:

"This formulation was created by mapping the Ivans/Johnson color-coding scheme onto a Janet grid, using Tsimmerman half-cells. Although several attempts to contact Professor Jennifer Johnson failed, I did receive enthusiastic feedback on this LST mapping from Professor Inese Ivans, and decided to make it public on that basis."

Click to enlarge:

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2018

Number of Stable Isotopes by Element

When plotting the number of stable isotopes against element, and against atomic number Z, it is clear that elements with an even atomic number are likely to have more stable isotopes (average 4.9) than elements with an odd atomic number (average 1.3). Click here for the Excel file. There is a Wikipedia page here.

The effect is striking in graphical form:

By Mark Leach

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1914

Oddo-Harkins Rule

The Oddo-Harkins rule holds that elements with an even atomic number (such as carbon) are more common than elements with an odd atomic number (such as nitrogen). This effect on the abundance of the chemical elements was first reported by Giuseppe Oddo in 1914 and William Draper Harkins in 1917. See the Wikipedia page:

Oddo-Harkin's rule

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1936

Orbital Filling With Electrons

Students of chemistry are often confused why the orbitals fill with electrons: 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d10, 4p6... etc., because the 3d10 seems to be 'out of sequence'.

This 'out of sequence' difficulity is nicely explained if the orbitals are arranged in a slightly different way:

The aufbau principle states that in the ground state of an atom or ion, electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. For example, the 1s shell is filled before the 2s subshell is occupied. In this way, the electrons of an atom or ion form the most stable electron configuration possible.

The order in which these orbitals are filled is given by the n + rule, also known as the Madelung rule (after Erwin Madelung), the Janet rule or the diagonal rule.

Orbitals with a lower n + value are filled before those with higher n + values. In this context, n represents the principal quantum number and ? the azimuthal quantum number. The values = 0, 1, 2, 3 correspond to the s, p, d and f orbital lables.

Julio Gutiérrez Samanez writes:

"I send you the diagram below that reconciles quantum mechanics (diagram for filling the electronic cells) with the Janet table or LSPT. Explaining the duplication of periods with the duplication of the quantum number n, and the introduction of Tao (T) spin of the level or spin of the period, which explains the parity of the symmetric periods."

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2009

Orbitron Gallery of Atomic Orbitals

The Orbitron gallery of atomic orbitals is a poster available from Mark Winter's Web Elements:

The orbitron web page is here.

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2004

Organic Chemist's Periodic Table

Organic chemistry is dominated by carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Other elements are commonly encountered in the organic lab, others less commonly and some... almost never at all...

A less than useful formulation (!):

followed by a slightly more useful organic chemist's periodic table:

By Mark Leach

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2018

Organic Chemist's Periodic Table (another one)

The Periodic Table as seen by an Organic Chemist... a T-Shirt by REDBUBBLE:

Thanks to Marcus Lynch for the tip!

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2008

Organometallic Periodic Table

Wikipedia has pages on many types of organometallic compound, and a periodic table for accessing these organometallic pages, such as the one below (which happens to be on the organotin page):

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1942

Paneth's Table

Published by Paneth in 1942 in an article in Nature in which he suggests that newly discovered elements such as Z = 43 should be given names by their discoverers. The other highlighted elements (below) had also not yet been named.

Element 43 had been discovered 9 years earlier but had not been given an official name because there was reluctance to consider synthetic elements on the same footing as naturally occurring ones. This changed as a result of Paneth's article.

For more information see Eric Scerri's, A Tale of Seven Elements, OUP, 2013.

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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1960

Pauling's Complete Electronegativity Scale

From The Nature of The Chemical Bond, 3rd Ed, pp 93, Pauling gives a periodic table showing the electronegativity of the elements.

Notice how the d block appears between groups 3 and 4 (13 & 14), rather than between groups 2 and 3 (2 & 13):

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2008

Periodic Table X

Periodic Table X is a periodic table for the Macintosh.

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2011

Periodicity Periodic Table

From Wikipedia, a PT showing the main periodic trends:

Wikipedia periodicity

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2017

PeriodicStats

A periodic table with a minimalist design ethic, optimized for phones and tablets:

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2004

Phase State: Solid, Liquid, Gas at 20°C & 700°C

By Mark Leach

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2016

Pictures & Words

A couple of periodic tables from Keith Enevoldsen with information shown in Pictures & Words:

 

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed

 

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2018

Places of the Periodic Table

An interactive, searchable Google map of places associated with the developers of the periodic table and with the chemical elements with links to further information brought to you by Carmen Giunta and James Marshall, with the encouragement of the ACS Division of the History of Chemistry (HIST), to mark the International Year of the Periodic Table (IYPT). This is an interactive searchable map of places associated with the developers of the periodic table and with the chemical elements with links to further information.

Examples include places where elements were discovered or synthesized, mineral sources of elements, places where discoverers of chemical periodicity worked, and places for which elements were named. Each entry contains links to further information about the person, place, or event described. The type of site is indicated (for example, lab, residence, mineral source, etc.), as well as whether (to the best of our knowledge) the historical site still exists at the location. For more information on the type of site, please consult this key to the map's fields. The map is intended for educational and informational purposes only, and is not meant as a travel guide. If you wish to visit a site on this map, please consult other resources to confirm access, and use common sense. (Read more here.)

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip! See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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1997

Ptable

Ptable is an excellent, data filled, dynamic periodic table with an intuitive and flexible interface, available in 50 languages:

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2006

Radioactivity Periodic Table

A periodic table showing the elements that have no stable isotopes, so that all samples are radioactive:

By Mark Leach

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2010

Recipe For A Human Shirt

By Sean Fallon and available from Fashionably Geek, A Recipe For Humans Shirt:

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2016

Rejected Element Names, Periodic Table of

A periodic table of rejected element names by Andy Brunning's Compound Interest:

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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2013

RSC Visual Elements Periodic Table: Alchemy

From the RSC Website: "Alchemists are often described as the first chemists. They developed an extraordinary language (rather than the chemical symbols we use today) to describe all manner of things, from chemical reactions to philosophical tenets. Click on ‘What is Alchemy?’ to learn about the three aims of the alchemists. Click on each of the alchemical symbols for more information and to see alternative symbols."

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2014

Schaeffer's IUPAC Periodic Table Quantum Mechanics Consistent

IUPAC Periodic Table Quantum Mechanics Consistent, Bernard Schaeffer, Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 5, No. 3, February 24, 2014
DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.53020

Abstract: Most periodic tables of the chemical elements are between 96% and 100% in accord with quantum mechanics. Three elements only do not fit correctly into the official tables, in disagreement with the spherical harmonics and the Pauli exclusion principle. Helium, belonging to the s-block, should be placed beside hydrogen in the s-block instead of the p-block. Lutetium and lawrencium belonging to the d-block of the transition metals should not be in the f-block of the lanthanides or the actinoids. With these slight modifications, the IUPAC table becomes quantum mechanics consistent.

IUPAC Periodic Table Quantum Mechanics Consistent

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2012

Schematic Periodic Table of Double-Charged Cations

N. S. Imyanitov / The Periodic Law. Formulations, Equations, Graphic Representations, Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 56 (14), 2183 - 2200, 2011 (In English), DOI: 10.1134/S0036023611140038

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2013

Scientific American Interactive Periodic Table

From Scientific American, The Elements Revealed: An Interactive Periodic Table.

Many elements have links with articles on individual elements which first appeared in Nature Chemistry and were not previously available on-line:

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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1983

Seawater Periodic Table

A periodic table of references to analytical chemistry papers associated with the elements. If you want to know how much gallium in seawater, this would be a good place to start:

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1960

Sistema Periodico Degli Elementi

An Italian Periodic Table in Science Museum, Turin (Estimated date 1960).

Note how the noble gases (as Group 0) are shown down the left hand side of the table:

 

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed

 

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2005

Smart Elements

Smart Elements, at smart-elements.com, is a company selling physical samples of chemical elements for research, education & collection.

  • High purity Elements for Science, Laboratory and Education
  • High-End element samples for collectors, museums, lectures and exhibitions
  • Free picture service for educational purposes
  • Professional advisory service
  • Purchase of Elements

Smart Elements sell numerous examples of all the naturally occuring elements. For example they sell 26 copper, Cu, products including samples in acrylic blocks, vials and bottles:

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2013

Spider Chart of The Periodic Table of Chemical Elements

A Spider Chart linking together various ideas about the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements by Roy Alexander (of Alexander Arrangement fame).

Click here to embiggen the image:

Spider Chart

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2015

STEM Sheets Printable (& Customizable) Periodic Table of Elements

From STEM Sheets – where "STEM" stands for Science, Technology Engineering & Maths – a customizable and printable periodic table.

Printable Features

  • Include names, symbols, atomic numbers, weights, periods, groups, electrons/shell
  • Include Lutetium (Lu) and Lawrencium (Lr) in the d-block if desired
  • Related elements are color coded
  • Print in color or black and white
  • Print in A4 or US Letter page sizes

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2005

Student's Periodic Table

Students are expected to know that in all equations hydrogen is molecular should [nearly always] be written as H2. Likewise, nitrogen is N2, oxygen O2, fluorine F2, chlorine Cl2, bromine Br2 and iodine I2. But somehow students are expected to know that molecular sulfur, S8, should be written as S and molecular phosphorus, P4, should be written as P.

By Mark Leach

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2011

Suggested Periodic Table Up To Z ≤ 172, Based on Dirac–Fock Calculations

A suggested periodic table up to Z ≤ 172, based on Dirac-Fock calculations on atoms and ions
Pekka Pyykkö
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011,13, 161-168
DOI: 10.1039/C0CP01575J

Extended Average Level (EAL) Dirac–Fock calculations on atoms and ions agree with earlier work in that a rough shell-filling order for the elements.

[This new] Periodic Table develops further that of Fricke, Greiner and Waber [Theor. Chim. Acta 1971, 21, 235] by formally assigning the elements 121–164 to (nlj) slots on the basis of the electron configurations of their ions. Simple estimates are made for likely maximum oxidation states, i, of these elements M in their MXi compounds:

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2006

Superconducting Elements

A periodic table showing which elements become superconducting at low temperature.

By Mark Leach

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2018

Superconductivity of Hydrides Periodic Table

Scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and Skoltech have demonstrated the high-temperature superconductivity of actinium hydrides and discovered a general principle for calculating the superconductivity of hydrides based on the periodic table alone. The results of their study were published in The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters.

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip! See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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2015

Sweetners: a Periodic Table

A guide to sweeteners By Patterson Clark and Lazaro Gamio, Published: March 2, 2015

Too much sugar can be detrimental to health, rotting teeth, building fat, damaging blood vessels and stressing out the system that regulates blood sugar. Some people turn to artificial sweeteners, but those are under increasing suspicion of creating metabolic problems, such as diabetes and obesity.

Natural alternative sweeteners exist, but even they have pitfalls if consumed in excess.

This sweetners periodic table below, click to enbiggen, charts the wide variety of sweeteners available in the United States, either in bulk amounts or as additives in food.

Not listed are super-sweet-tasting, zero-calorie proteins from several African fruits (monellin, brazzein and thaumatin), which have not been approved for use by the FDA. Also not included: banned or poisonous sweeteners, such as lead acetate, which ancient Romans made by cooking sour wine in lead pots.

Sweetners

Thanks to Marcus Lynch for the tip!

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2017

Technology, Periodic Table of

Go to the website and hover over the element to see how it is used in modern technology:

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2018

Timelines, of The Periodic Table

By Steven Murov, a chronology of the events that have resulted in our present periodic table of the elements and a celebration of the 150th anniversary of the Mendeleev (birthday, 02/08/1834) periodic table (1869).

Recursively, the Murov website has many links to this [Chemogenesis] website.

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip! 
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed

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2019

Toma's Periodic Tables

Henrique E. Toma writes:

"I will be delighted if I could have a chance to contribute for the fantastic moment expressed by 2019 IYPT.

"I am senior Professor of Chemistry at the University of São Paulo, and great Periodic Table enthusiast since the beginning of my career about 50 years ago. This interest actually came from my supervisor and mentor, Professor Henry Taube (Nobel Prize, 1983), who taught me the beauty of the elements."

"As an inorganic chemist, I have been collecting the elements and minerals for a long time, and I built up the Periodic Table with the real elements shown below. It is one of the attractions of the campus, and has been reported in many publications1. It was visited by colleagues from IUPAC, including the President. I wouldn't be surprised if it inspired IUPAC the similar Table exposed in Paris, this year. The difference is that our table is that it also places the typical minerals together with the elements, and I believe that this is very important aspect for teaching and discussing the history behind them:

"Next, is my personal version of the IUPAC Periodic Table, shown in Figure 2, with the isotopes distributed in a column right to the element symbol. This Table is very practical, and particularly useful when you are dealing with mass spectrometry or isotopes. It is in my book of Elements2.

"Another is the Periodic Table of the Elements for Life, with the essential elements and abundance expressed by colors, including those used in medicine. This Table will be changing with the progress of Bioinorganic Chemistry, and is in my book of Bioinorganic Chemistry3.

"Finally, I have adapted the periodic table of elemental sustainability, using the colors to call attention for this issue. In this form, it is can be more easily understood by the public. Elemental Sustainability is a very important issue, as discussed in Green Chemistry Journal4.

References:

  1. Toma, H. E. IYPT 2019 International Year of the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements. Quimica Nova 42, 468–472 (2019).
  2. Toma, H. Estrutura atômica, ligações e estereoquímica. (Edgard Blucher, 2018).
  3. Toma, H. Química bioinorganica e ambiental. (Edgard Blucher, 2015).
  4. Toma, H. Green Processing of Strategic Elements Based on Magnetic Nanohydrometallurgy. Green Chem. 29, 948–959 (2015).

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2019

Ultimate Periodic Table by Goodfellow

While the 'ultimate' periodic table by Goodfellow may not appear to be very ultimate, it does actually a possess a very rare property: Goodfellow is a materials company that supplies most of the chemical elements for industrial and research use.

By clicking on the element palladium, various facts about, and properties of, Pd are shown. Additionally, Goodfellow can supply:

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2010

Upper Limit in Mendeleev's Periodic Table - Element No.155

This book (PDF), by Albert Khazan, represents a result of many-year theoretical research, which manifested hyperbolic law in Mendeleev's Periodic Table.

According to [Khazan's] law, an upper limit (heaviest element) exists in Mendeleev's Table, whose atomic mass is 411.66 and No.155. It is shown that the heaviest element No.155 can be a reference point in nuclear reactions. Due to symmetry of the hyperbolic law, the necessity of the Table of Anti-Elements, consisting of anti-substance, has been predicted. This manifests that the found hyperbolic law is universal, and the Periodic Table is common for elements and anti-elements.

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2014

URENCO Periodic Table

A periodic table by URENCO showing which non-radioactive (stable) elements are suitable for isotopic enrichment using gas centrifuge technology:

URENCO gas centrifuge enrichment

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2008 Periodic Table of Videos

The chemistry department at the University of Nottingham has produced a series of YouTube video information clips about the chemical elements:

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2004

Visual Elements Periodic Table

Visual Elements Periodic Table

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2018

Waterloo Periodic Table Project/Projet Tableau Périodique

To celebrate the International Year of Chemistry (IYC), Chem 13 News magazine together with the University of Waterloo's Department of Chemistry and the Faculty of Science encouraged chemistry educators and enthusiasts worldwide to adopt an element and artistically interpret that element.

The project created a periodic table as a mosaic of science and art. Students from all Canadian provinces and territories, 20 U.S. states and 14 countries researched, created and designed the elemental tiles. We created a poster, wall mural and a mobile app. The app includes the creative process behind each tile along with basic atomic properties of the element. The free app work to truly highlight the artistic expression of the Periodic Table Project. Thank you to all the teachers and students who participated in the collaborative Periodic Table Project.

Read more on the University of Waterloo website.

Click here image to enlarge the PT below.

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1993

WebElements: The Periodic Table on The Web

Mark Winter's WebElements was started in 1993 when it was one of the first websites on the internet.

Mark Leach's Chemogenesis web book uses the WebElements periodic table as its master data source, and it does not attempt to duplicate it.

Abundance of elements (Earth's crust)
Abundance of elements (oceans)
Abundance of elements (sun)
Abundance of elements (Universe)
Abundance of elements (in human body)
Accurate mass of the isotopes
Atomic number
Atomic weight
Biological role
Block in periodic table
Boiling point
Bond enthalpy (diatomics)
Bond length in element
Colour (color)
Compounds
Covalent radius
Crystal structure
Density
Description
Discovery
Electrical resistivity

Electronegativities
Electronic configuration
Element bond length
Enthalpy of atomization
Enthalpy of fusion
Enthalpy of vaporization
Examples of compounds
Group name numbers
Health hazards
History of the element
Ionic radius
Ionization energy
Isolation
Isotope data
Key data
Meaning of name
Melting point
Molar volume
Names and symbols
Nuclear data
Origin of name

Oxidation states in compounds
Period in table
Properties of some compounds
Radioisotopes
Radius (atomic)
Radius (covalent)
Radius (ionic)
Radius (van der Waals)
Radius metallic (12)
Radioactive isotopes
Resistivity (electrical)
Shell structure
Standard atomic weights
Standard state
Structure of element
Thermal conductivity
Uses
Van der Waals radius
X-ray crystal structure

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2016

Where Your Elements Came From Periodic Table

  • The hydrogen in your body, present in every molecule of water, came from the Big Bang. There are no other appreciable sources of hydrogen in the universe.
  • The carbon in your body was made by nuclear fusion in the interior of stars, as was the oxygen.
  • Much of the iron in your body was made during supernovas of stars that occurred long ago and far away.
  • The gold in your jewelry was likely made from neutron stars during collisions that may have been visible as short-duration gamma-ray bursts.
  • Elements like phosphorus and copper are present in our bodies in only small amounts but are essential to the functioning of all known life.

The featured periodic table, from Astronomy Picture of The Day (APOD) is color coded to indicate humanity's best guess as to the nuclear origin of all known elements. The sites of nuclear creation of some elements, such as copper, are not really well known and are continuing topics of observational and computational research.

Where Your Elements Came From

Thanks to Marcus Lynch for the tip!

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1934

White's Periodic Table

The periodic table of White shows the normal state electronic configurations, from H.E. White. Introduction to Atomic Spectra. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1934,
p. 85, Table 5.4..

Helium is clearly associated with H, and placed above Be in accord with the s2 electron configuration of the free atom.

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2001

Wikipedia Periodic Table

The Wikipedia Periodic Table pages are astonishing, giving hyper-linked data about:

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1813

Wollaston's Synoptic Scale of Chemical Equivalents

Philosophical Transactions: A Synoptic Scale of Chemical Equivalents by William Hyde Wollaston, M.D. Sec. R.S., or from here.

It is apparent that chemistry the years 1810 to 1850 was largely concerned with discovering the whole number stoichiometric ratios of atoms in chemical compounds.

Wollaston writes in the text above:

"It is impossible in several instances, where only two combinations of the same ingredients are known, to discover which of the compounds is to be regarded as consisting of a pair of single atoms, and since the decision of these questions is purely theoretical, and by no means necessary to the formation of a table adapted to most practical purposes, I have not been desirous of warping my numbers according to an atomic theory, but have endeavored to make practical convenience my sole guide, and have considered the doctrine of simple multiples, on which that of atoms is founded, merely as a valuable assistant in determining, by simple division, the amount of those quantities that are liable to such definite deviations from the original law of Richter."

"Mr. Dalton in his atomic views of chemical combination appears not to have taken much pains to ascertain the actual prevalence of that law of multiple proportions by which the atomic theory is best supported [however] it is in fact to Mr. Dalton that we are indebted for the first correct observation of such an instance of a simple multiple in the union of nitrous gas with oxygen."

"[I have] computed a series of supposed atoms, I [have] assumed oxygen as the decimal unit of my scale [ie. oxygen = 10], in order to facilitate the estimation of those numerous combinations which it forms with other bodies. Though the present table of Equivalents, I have taken care to make oxygen equally prominent on account of the important part it performs in determining the affinities of bodies by the different proportions in which it is united to them.."

Mark Leach writes:

"When Wollaston's equivalent weights are converted from O = 10.00 to the modern value of O = 15.999, the atomic weight values can be seen to be astonishingly accurate.

"However, the language of the article is quite difficult as the meaning of many of the terms is unclear (to me, at least). For example, in modern usage adding 'ia' to a metal implies the oxide: 'magnesia' is magnesium oxide, MgO. I am not clear if this historical usage is consistent. 'Azote' is nitrogen and 'muriatic acid (dry)' is hydrogen chloride gas. I have only analyses/re-calculated the elements and a couple of common/obvious compounds:"

  Wollaston's data Scaled to O = 15.999 Modern Values % error
H (as H2) 1.32 2.112 2.016 5%
O 10.00 15.999 15.999 ref. value
H2O 11.32 18.111 18.015 1%
C 7.74 12.383 12.011 3%
S 20.00 31.998 32.060 0%
P 17.40 27.838 30.974 -11%
N (as N2) 17.54 28.062 28.014 0%
Cl (as Cl2) 44.10 70.556 70.900 0%
Fe 34.50 55.197 55.845 -1%
Cu 40.00 63.996 63.546 1%
Zn 41.00 65.596 65.380 0%
Hg 125.50 200.787 200.590 0%
Pb 129.50 207.187 207.980 0%
Ag 135.00 215.987 107.870 50%
  • The elements hydrogen, nitrogen (azote) and chlorine have clearly been measured as the diatomic molecules, even if this was unknown to Wollaston in 1813.
  • Phosphorus is out by 11%... [fair enough].
  • Only silver is clearly wrong, but it is out by 50% so it looks like a simple stoichiometry error: Perhaps the oxide was assumed to be AgO was instead of the correct Ag2O.

Interestingly, Wollaston's analysis is far better than Daubeny's 1831 data seen in Oxford.

Read more in an entry concerning chemical slide rules.

Thanks to Nawa for the tip!

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2010

World's Smallest Periodic Table

The World's Smallest Periodic Table:

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1996

X-ray Absorption Edges

The periodic table links to tabulations of an elements characteristic x-ray absorption edge energies, and of the anomalous scattering coefficients f' and f" as a function of incident x-ray energy:

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Periodic Table, What is it showing?
Binary Compounds

© Mark R. Leach 1999-


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