The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables
There are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but this is the only comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Mark R. Leach Ph.D.
Use the drop menus below to search & select from the more than 1100 Period Tables in the database:
- By Decade
- By Type
Best Four Periodic Tables for Data All Periodic Tables by Name All Periodic Tables by Date All Periodic Tables by Reverse Date All Periodic Tables, as Added to the Database All Periodic Tables, reverse as Added Elements by Name Elements by Date Discovered Search for: Mendeleev/Mendeléeff Search for: Janet/Left-Step Search for: Eric Scerri Search for: Mark Leach Search for: René Vernon Search for: Electronegativity
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Periodic Table database entries referencing the term electronegativity, by date:
Berzelius' Electronegativity Table
Berzelius' electronegativity table of 1836.
The most electronegative element (oxygen or Sauerstoff) is listed at the top left and the least electronegative (potassium or Kalium) lower right. The line between hydrogen (Wasserstoff) and gold seperates the predomently electronegative elements from the electropositive elements. Page 17 and ref. 32 from Bill Jensen's Electronegativity from Avogadro to Pauling Part I: Origins of the Electronegativity Concept, J. Chem. Educ., 73, 11-20 (1996):
Baker's Electronegativity Table
Baker's electronegativity table of 1870 differs from Berzelius' listing of 1836 only by the addition of the newly discovered elements. Page 280 and ref. 5 from Bill Jensen's: Electronegativity from Avogadro to Pauling Part II: Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Developments, J. Chem. Educ., 80, 279-287 (2003):
Discovery of Fluorine
Fluorine, atomic number 9, has a mass of 18.998 au.
Fluorine exists as a pale yellow diatomic molecular gas, F2. It is the most electronegative and reactive of all elements: it which reacts with practically all organic and inorganic substances.
Fluorine was first observed or predicted in 1810 by A.-M. Ampére and first isolated in 1886 by H. Moissan.
Rang's Periodic Arrangement of The Elements
P.J.F. Rang's The Periodic Arrangement of the Elements, Chemical News, vol. 67, p. 178 (1893)
Observing that that Rang's table has four 'groups': A, B, C & D, René Vernon writes:
- Group A contains the strongest positive elements; group D the strongest negative elements. At such an early date, it's odd to see groups 1 to 3 categorised together.
- Group B are the elements with high melting points; "they are all remarkable for their molecular combinations" (presuamably, a reference to multiple oxidation states). At one side of group B are the "anhydro-combinations", probably referring to the simple chemistry of Ti, Zr, [Hf] Nb and Ta being dominated by insoluble oxides. At the other side are the "amin, carbonyl, and cyanogen combination", probably a reference to the group VIII carbonyls, as metal carbonyls had only just been discovered. Ni is shown after Fe, rather than Co.
- Group C includes the "heavy metals that have low melting points"; an early reference to frontier or post-transition metals, as a category.
- Rang says: ...if groups A and D be split up vertically in respectively three and two parts, the table presents seven vertical groups, and horizontally seven more or less complete series. Each group in each of the series 2 and 3 are represent by one element... The octave appears both horizontally and vertically in the table.
- Rang's reference to Di as representing all the triads between Ba and Ta kind of works since Hf would go under Zr, and that would leave 15 Ln or five sets of three. Thus, something like this:
Gd occupies the central position among the Ln. This arrangement won't fit however unless Rang envisaged all 15 Ln occupying the position under Y.
- The location of H over | Ga | In | Tl, appears strange... but the electronegativity of H (2.2) is closer to B (2.04) than it is to C (2.55).
From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf
Thomsen's Systematic Arrangement of the Chemical Elements
In 1895 the Danish thermochemist Hans Peter Jørgen Julius Thomsen proposed (Thomsen, J., 1895. Z. Anorg. Chem. 9, 190 & Chemical News, 72, 89–91, p. 90) a pyramidal/ladder representation.
Notice how this formulation identifies the electropositive & electronegative elements with respect to the periodic table, thirty years before Linus Pauling.
Pauling's Complete Electronegativity Scale
From The Nature of The Chemical Bond, 3rd Ed, pp 93, Pauling gives a periodic table showing the electronegativity of the elements.
Notice how the d block appears between groups 3 and 4 (13 & 14), rather than between groups 2 and 3 (2 & 13):
Satz Reciprocal System Periodic Table
Developed in 1971 for my book The Unmysterious Universe, this periodic table is based on Dewey B. Larson's Reciprocal System of theory. The numbers below the symbols indicate the rotational displacement (spin numbers) of the atoms. The Roman numerals indicated divisions; the rows, 1B to 4B, are referred to as "groups" rather than as "periods." Note that we have the same trouble positioning hydrogen as does everyone else; here, I've put it over both the alkali metals and the halogens, because it acts both as electropositive (e.g., with respect to water) and electronegative (with respect to carbon).
Click here for larger PDF file.
Elsevier's Periodic Table of the Elements
Prepared by P. Lof is Elsevier's Periodic Table of the Elements.
This educational wall chart features the periodic table of the elements supported by a wealth of chemical, physical, thermodynamical, geochemical and radiochemical data laid down in numerous colourful graphs, plots, figures and tables. The most important chemical and physical properties of the elements can be found - without turning a page.
All properties are presented in the form of tables or graphs. More than 40 properties are given, ranging from melting point and heat capacity to atomic radius, nuclear spin, electrical resistivity and abundance in the solar system. Sixteen of the most important properties are colour coded, so that they may be followed through the periodic system at a glance. Twelve properties have been selected to illustrate periodicity, while separate plots illustrate the relation between properties. In addition, there are special sections dealing with units, fundamental constants and particles, radioisotopes, the Aufbau principle, etc. All data on the chart are fully referenced, and S.I. units are used throughout.
Designed specifically for university and college undergraduates and high school students, "Elsevier's Periodic Table of the Elements" will also be of practical value to professionals in the fields of fundamental and applied physical sciences and technology. The wall chart is ideally suited for self-study and may be used as a complementary reference for textbook study and exam preparation.
- atomic number
- standard atomic weight
- ground-state electronic configuration
- element symbol
- element name
- discoverer and year of discovery
- melting point; boiling point
- critical temperature
- molar enthalpy of atomization
- molar enthalpy of fusion
- molar enthalpy of vaporization
- atomic energy levels of the outermost three orbitals
- formal oxidation states
- selection of standard reduction potentials
- first, second & third molar ionization energies
- Pauling electronegativity
- Allred-Rochow electronegativity
- molar electron affinity
- molar volume
- crystal structures
- polymorphic transition temperatures
- atomic radius
- effective ionic radii
- volumic mass (density)
- electrical resistivity
- thermal conductivity
- abundance in the solar system
- abundance in the Orgueil meteorite
- abundance in the solar photosphere
- abundance in the continental crust
- abundance in the primitive mantle
- abundance in the oceanic crust
- naturally occurring isotopes
- mass number and representative isotopic composition
- molar heat capacity
- Debye temperature
- coefficient of linear thermal expansion
- price; annual mining production
- world reserve base
- nuclear spin and NMR receptivity
- Mossbauer active nuclides
- physical (standard) state
- metallic character
- abundance in food (human daily intake)
- principal hazardous property
- Other information: Aufbau principle, quantum numbers, orbitals and sequence of orbital filling; trivial group names; drawings of crystal lattice structures; 12 plots of a chemical/physical property against atomic number; 9 plots of a property against another property; list of SI units and SI prefixes; list of other units and their conversion to SI; list of fundamental physical constants; scheme of fundamental particles; list of radioisotopes with half-life longer than 5 days, presenting half-life and mode(s) of decay, indicating cosmogenic isotopes and isotopes produced by U-235 fission, as well as radioisotopes used in geochronology, pharmacology and nuclear medicine.
Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed
WebElements: The Periodic Table on The Web
Mark Winter's WebElements was started in 1993 when it was one of the first websites on the internet.
Mark Leach's Chemogenesis web book uses the WebElements periodic table as its master data source, and it does not attempt to duplicate it.
elements (Earth's crust)
Electronegativity Periodic Table
A periodic table showing electronegativity, "The ability of an atom to attract electron density from a covalent bond" (Linus Pauling). Blue elements are electronegative, red elements are electropositive, and purple elements are intermediate. Notice how hydrogen is intermediate in electronegativity between carbon and boron and is positioned above and between these elements:
By Mark Leach
Electronegativity Periodic Table
"This image distorts the conventional periodic table of the elements so that the greater the electronegativity of an atom, the higher its position in the table", here:
Extraction from Ore to Pure Element
A periodic table showing how pure elements are extracted:
Highly electropositive elements (Na, K) and electronegative elements (Cl2, F2) can only be obtained by electrolysis.
By Mark Leach
Where Should Hydrogen Go?
There are four possible positions for hydrogen:
- A Group 1 element, above Li, because it forms H+ ions.
- A Group 17 element, above F, because it forms H- ions.
- Above and between boron and carbon because it is of intermediate electronegativity.
- In the top middle, because nowhere else is ideal.
By Mark Leach
Reaction Chemists' Periodic Table
OK, so which Is The Best formulation of The Periodic Table?
Personally as a reaction chemist, my preferred periodic table is the 'long' form shown below, with hydrogen above and between boron and carbon, although clearly other scientists have other ideas.
All periodic tables show the increase in mass and atomic number, Z, but only the long form unambiguously shows the general top-right-to-bottom-left trends in electronegativity, atomic radius, metallic properties and first ionisation energy.
Electronegativity is absolutely crucial to the understanding of structure, bonding, material type (van Arkel-Ketelaar triangle and Laing tetrahedron) and chemical reactivity, and it underpins much of the chemogenesis analysis.
Electronegativity Chart (Leach)
Due to the importance of Pauling's electronegativity scale, as published in The Nature of The Chemical Bond (1960), where electronegativity ranges from Cs 0.7 to F 4.0, all the other electronegativity scales are routinely normalised with respect to Pauling's range.
When the Pauling, Revised Pauling, Mulliken, Sanderson and Allred-Rochow electronegativity scales are plotted together against atomic number, Z, the similarity of the data can be observed. The solid line shows the averaged data:
Top 10 Periodic Tables
There are more than 1000 periodic tables hosted by the Chemogenesis Webbook Periodic Table database, so it can be a little difficult to find the exceptional ones.
Here we present – in our humble opinion – The ten most significant periodic tables in the database.
We present the best:
- Three best data rich periodic tables
- Five formulations which show the development of the modern PT
- One, of many, interesting alternative formulations
- One example of the periodic table being used as an infographic template
Three Excellent, Data Rich Periodic Tables
The first three of our top 10 periodic tables are classic element data repositories.
They all work in the same way: click on the element symbol to get data/information about the selected element. The three are Mark Winter's WebElements, Theo Gray's Photographic Periodic Table & Michael Dayah's Ptable.
- Since 1993 – and with its rather bland interface – WebElements has given access to vast quantities of in depth chemical data & information. This is the professional chemist's periodic table:
- Theo Gray's Photographic Periodic Table is undoubtedly the most attractive PT available in web space, but there is more. Clicking around the website gives access to a host of information, pictures & anecdotes from Theo's extraordinary and extensive collection of chemical elements:
- Ptable has a super-slick, and very fast interface. It is data/information rich and is available in 50 languages:
Five Formulations Showing The History & Development
The next five examples deal with history and development Periodic Table. The first is Dalton's 1808 list of elements, next is Mendeleev's 1869 Tabelle I, then Werner's remarkably modern looking 1905 formulation. This is followed by Janet's Left Step formulation and then a discussion of how and why the commonly used medium form PT formulation, is constructed.
- There are several early listings of chemical substances, including Valentinus' Alchemy Table and Lavoisier's Table of Simple Substances (1789). In 1803 Dalton proposed that matter consists of discrete atoms that combine in fixed ratios, stoichiometry, to form chemical elements. Thus, Dalton's list of chemical elements, plus mass data, must be included in any top ten listing:
- If you examine the periodic tables from Antiquity to 1899, you will see that from about 1830 onwards, proto-periodic tables were coming thick and fast. Significant developments include: Daubeny's Teaching Display Board of Atomic Weights (1831), Chancourtois Telluric Helix (1862) and Newlands octaves (1864).
But, it was Mendeleev's Tabelle I that was first near complete periodic table formulation of the then known elements (no Group 18 rare gasses, note). Crucially, Mendeleev identified gaps and was able to make predictions about the chemical properties of the missing substances. Plus, Mendeleev promoted his ideas with great energy:
- Werner's 1905 Periodic Table is remarkably modern looking. The formulation is a long form that separates transition metals and rare earths, but he guessed wrong on how many existed:
- Janet's Left Step formulation of 1928 is one for the purists as it clearly shows the chemical elements arranged into s, p, d & f-blocks of the recently developed quantum mechanical description of atomic structure:
- The modern (and commonly employed) periodic table is obtained by transforming Janet's Left Step into the modern long form periodic table by rearranging the blocks around. This transformational mapping is discussed in some detail here.
The long form and medium form PTs have electronegativity trending from top-right (electronegative) to bottom left (electropositive), and many aspects of periodicity corollate with electronegativity: atomic radius, first ionisation energy, etc.
Thus, the long form and medium form periodic tables are commonly used in the classroom:
An Alternative Formulation
The internet database contains many, many alternative formulations, and these are often spiral and/or three dimensional. These exemplified by the 1965 Alexander DeskTopper Arrangement. To see the variety of formulations available, check out the Spiral & Helical and 3-Dimensional formulations in the database:
The periodic table as a motif is a useful and commonly used infographic template for arranging many types of object with, from 50 to 150 members.
There are numerous examples in the Non-Chemistry section where dozens of completely random representations can be found:
- Adobe Illustrator Shortcuts
- Adult Positions
- Airline Customer Reviews
- Beer Styles
- And, chosen more or less at random, European Nations:
Averaged Ionisation Potential Periodic Table
By Leland Allen, a representation of the periodic table with the third dimension of energy derived from the averaged ionisation potentials of the s and p electrons. (Allen suggested that this was a direct measure of electronegativity). From J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1989, 111, 9004:
Acid-Base Behavior of 100 Element Oxides
Acid-Base Behavior of 100 Element Oxides: Visual and Mathematical Representations by Mikhail Kurushkin and Dmitry Kurushkin. J. Chem. Educ. 95, 4, 678-681.
A novel educational chart that represents the acid-base behavior of 100 s-, p-, d-, and f-element oxides depending on the element's electronegativity and oxidation state was designed. An updated periodic table of said oxides was developed. A mathematical criterion based on the chart was derived which allows prediction of the behavior of unfamiliar oxides:
First Ionisation Energy to the Standard Form Periodic Table
There is debate amongst the cognoscenti about the 'best' representation of the periodic table, and how this 'best' formulation can be explained by [rationalized by] quantum mechanics (QM).
Many feel that the Janet PT formulation, the 'Left Step', is the ideal QM PT, but this formulation does not show periodicity very well, and there are issues with the placement of H, He, Be which spill over into questions about their placement in the standard form PT (the periodic table used in classrooms and textbooks around the world).
However, it is possible to get to the conventional standard form PT directly from the first ionisation energy data, where the 1st ionisation energy is the energy required to convert a gas phase atom (M) into its gas phase positive ion plus electron.
M(g) → M+(g) + e–
The process involves:
- taking the 1st ionisation data plot for the elements H to Xe (Z = 1 to 36)
- rotate 90° clockwise and stretch
- move the atoms horizontally into columns
Note that a similar logic can be applied to atomic radius and electronegativity data.
However, there are issues about the measurement of atomic radius, because atoms are 'soft at their edges', and gas phase atomic radius is not precisely defined. And, electronegativity is a derived parameter.
By Mark Leach
Correlation of Electron Affinity (F) with Elemental Orbital Radii (rorb)
From Jour. Fac. Sci., Hokkaido Univ., Ser. IV. vol. 22, no. 2, Aug., 1987, pp. 357-385, The Connection Between the Properties of Elements and Compounds; Mineralogical-Crystallochemical Classification of Elements by Alexander A. Godovikov & Yu Hariya and expanded by René Vernon who writes.
René Vernon writes:
I was delighted to read about two properties that account for nearly everything seen in the periodic table.
While researching double periodicity, I happened upon an obscure article, which simply correlates electron affinity with orbital radius, and in so doing reproduces the broad contours of the periodic table. Having never thought much about the value or significance of EA, and its absence of easily discernible trends, I was suitably astonished. The authors left out the Ln and An and stopped at Bi. They were sitting on a gold mine but provided no further analysis.
I added the data up to Lr, updated the EA values, and have redrawn their graph. It is a thing of beauty and wonderment in its simplest sufficient complexity and its return on investment. I've appended 39 observations, covering all 103 elements.
- Very good correspondence with natural categories
- Largely linear trends seen along main groups; two switchbacks seen in group 13; also falloffs (6p sub-shell) seen in groups 14-17
- First row anomalies seen for Li (in amphoteric territory), Be (ditto), C (misaligned), N (in noble gas territory), O (misaligned), F (ditto) and He (ditto)
- For group 13, the whole group is anomalous, no doubt due to the scandide contraction impacting Ga and the double whammy of the lanthanide and 5d contraction impacting Tl
- Nitrogen was called a noble gas before the discovery of the real noble gases and appropriately enough falls into that territory
- Rn is metallic enough to show cationic behaviour and falls just outside of noble gas territory
- F and O are the most corrosive of the corrosive nonmetals
- The rest of the corrosive nonmetals (Cl, Br and I) are nicely distributed, across the border from F
- The rest of the simple and complex anions, funnily enough, comprise the intermediate nonmetals
- The metalloids are nicely aligned; Ge falls a little outside of the metalloid line, being still occasionally referred to as a metal; Sb, being the most metallic of the metalloids falls outside the border; At is inside; Po is just outside
- Pd is located among the nonmetals due to its absence of 5s electrons; see here
- The proximity of H to Pd is astonishing given the latter's capacity to adsorb the former
- The post-transition metals (PTM) form an "archipelago of amphoterism" bounded by transition metals: Ni and C to the west; Fe and Re to the south; V, Tc and W to the east; noble metals to the north
- Curiously, Zn, Cd, and Hg are collocated with Be, and distant from the PTM and the TM proper (aside from Mn)
- Zn is shown as amphoteric, which it is. Cd is shown as cationic but is not too far away from amphoteric territory; it does show amphoterism, reluctantly; Hg is shown as amphoteric which is the case, weakly, for HgO, as is the congener sulfide HgS, which forms anionic thiomercurates (such as Na2HgS2 and BaHgS3) in strongly basic solutions
- The ostensibly noble metals are nicely delineated; Ag is anomalous given its greater reactivity; Cu, as a coinage metal, is a little further away
- The proximity of Au and Pt to the halogen line is remarkable given the former's capacity to form monovalent anions
- The ferromagnetic metals (Fe-Co-Ni) form a nice line
- The TM from groups 4-12 form switchback patterns e.g. Ti-Zr and the switchback to Hf
- The refractory metals, Nb, Ta, Mo, W and Re are in a wedge formation
- Tc is the central element of the periodic table in terms of mean radius and EA values; V is close, Cr is a little further away
- Ti is just inside the basic cation line; while Ti(IV) is amphoteric, Ti3+ is ionic
- Sc-Y-La shows a main group pattern up to La, when there is a switchback to Ac
- Sc-Y-Lu-Lr shows a TM switch back pattern
- La, and to lesser extent Ce are rather separated from the rest of the Ln, consistent with Restrepo and here.
- Sc and Lu are close to the amphoteric territory and are both in fact, weakly amphoteric
- The post-cerium Ln and An (but for Th) all fall within basic cation territory
- EA values for the An are estimates and need to be treated with due caution
- The light actinides (Th to Cm) occupy a tight locus, with the exception of Th, where the 5f collapse is thought to occur, and Pu, which sits on the border of 5f delocalisation and localisation
- While the light actinides U to Cm are shown as being cationic they are all known in amphoteric forms
- The heavy actinides, Bk to Lr, are widely dispersed
- All the Ln, bar Tm, are located within close proximity of the light An locus; Tm is the least abundant stable Ln
- The gap between La and Ce, and rest of the Ln is consistent with Restrepo's findings and here
- Nobelium in this edition of the chart falls off the bottom, having a radius 1.58 (cf Es) and an EA of -2.33
- There is an extraordinary alignment between He and the Group 2 metals
- Magnesium is on the cationic-amphoteric boundary; some of its compounds show appreciable covalent character
- Li, being the least basic of the alkali metals, is located just outside the alkalic zone; Li compounds are known for their covalent properties
- The reversal of the positions of Fr and Cs is consistent with Cs being the most electronegative metal
- A similar, weaker pattern is seen with Ba and Ra.
So there it is, just two properties account for nearly everything.
Click images below to enlarge:
|What is the Periodic Table Showing?||Periodicity|
© Mark R. Leach Ph.D. 1999 –
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