Internet Database of Periodic TablesThere are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but this is the only comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Dr Mark R Leach.
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3Dimensional Periodic Table formulations, by date:1862 Béguyer de Chancourtois' Vis Tellurique The French geologist , AlexandreÉmile Béguyer de Chancourtois was the first person to make use of atomic weights to produce a classification of periodicity. He drew the elements as a continuous spiral around a metal cylinder divided into 16 parts. The atomic weight of oxygen was taken as 16 and was used as the standard against which all the other elements were compared. Tellurium was situated at the centre, prompting vis tellurique, or telluric screw. Many thanks to Peter Wothers – and courtesy of the Master and Fellows of St Catharine's College, Cambridge – comes a high quality image of the original 1862 formulation. Click here, or on the image to enlarge: Watch Peter Wothers 'unravel' and show Prof. Martyn Poliakoff this first periodic table at 17min 50sec into the YouTube video below: Some more information: Chancourtois' original formulation includes elements in their correct places, selected compounds and some elements in more than one place. The helix was an important advance in that it introduced the concept of periodicity, but it was flawed. It has been suggested that Chancourtois called his formulation a telluric helix because tellurium is found in the middle. However, most elements are found as there their 'earths' – tellus, telluris – or oxides, which for a mineralogist would have been highly significant. The formulation was rediscovered in the 1889 (P. J. Hartog, "A First Foreshadowing of the Periodic Law" Nature 41, 1868 (1889)), and since then it has appeared most often in a simplified form that emphasizes the virtues and eliminates its flaws. [Thanks to CG for this info.] See also:
A three dimensional models of the telluric helix: There are representations of the 1862 formulation at the School of Mines at ParisTech: 1872 Meyer's Spiral System Meyer's Spiral System of 1872 (from van Spronsen): 1881 Spring's Diagram
1892 Bassett's Vertical Arrangement Bassett's Vertical Arrangement is actually designed to be a three dimensional formulation. Quam & Quam's review paper states:
1898 Crookes' vis generatrix Model of Crookes’ vis generatrix of 1898, built by his assistant, Gardiner. From: Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 63, 408. The vertical scale represents the atomic weight of the elements from H = 1 to Ur = 239. Missing elements are represented by a white circle. Similar elements appear underneath each other: 1905 Gooch & Walker Periodic Table Mazurs' reproduction (p. 82) of a periodic table formulation by Frank Austin Gooch and Claude Frederic Walker, from Outlines of Inorganic Chemistry, Macmillan, London and New York, p. 8/9, 1905 (ref Mazurs p.188): Thanks to Laurie Palmer for the tip, and to Philip Stewart for the corrections and details. 1905 Gooch & Walker's Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Series of Elements This three dimensional formulation – clearly developed from the Crookes' vis generatrix model – is given a 1905 textbook by Gooch & Walker: Outlines of Inorganic Chemistry (see the Google Books scanned version pp273).
1911 Emerson's Helix From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf: Another version of Emerson's Helix from "100 Years of Periodic Law of Chemical Elements, Nauka 1969, p. 74:
1911 Soddy's ThreeDimensional System Soddy's threedimensional system of 1911 (from van Spronsen): 1916 Harkins & Hall's Periodic Table
1920 Schaltenbrand's Helical Periodic Table G. Schaltenbrand, Darstellung des periodischen Systems der Elemente durch eine räumliche Spirale, Z. anorg. allgem. Chem., 112, 2214 (Sept. 1920) From Quam & Quam's 1934 review:
Commissioned in 2019 to match George Schaltenbrand's 1920 design for a helical gathering of the elements – albeit extended to all 118 current elements – and signed by Yuri Oganessian, it is almost certainly the most expensive periodic table in the world." 1920 Kohlweiler's System Kohlweiler's system of 1920 (from van Spronsen): 1925 Friend's Periodic Sphere J. A. N. Friend, "The periodic sphere and the position of the rare earth metals", Chem. News., 130, 1967 (Mar., 1925).
1925 Courtines' A Model of the Periodic Table or Periodic Classification Published in J. Chem. Ed., 2, 2, 107109 in 1925 by M. Courtines of the Laboratory of Experimental Physics, College of France, Paris. We do not know the date of the forth image (below), but it looks as if it was prepared a few years later. However, it is a 'top down' view of the 3D formulation. From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf
1925 Model of the Periodic System of de Chancourtois From the Science Museum in the UK collection, a model of the Periodic System of de Chancourtois from 1862:
1928 Janet's ThreeDimensional SpiralTube System Janet's ThreeDimensional SpiralTube System of 1928 (from van Spronsen): Click here for large diagram. 1934 Romanoff's System From Revue Scientifique 1934, V. Romanoff's paper (pages 661–665) Le Système Périodique de Mendéléeff Par Représentation Graphique. Dr. Erik Strub writes:
Romanoff's System of 1934 (from van Spronsen): 1940 Gamow [First] Ribbon Periodic Table George Gamow is well known for his Gamow 1961 ribbon formulation. It appeared in a 1948 book: One, Two, Three... Infinity, but it first appeared in 1940 in 'The Birth and Death of the Sun' (Viking, N. Y.). Conal Boyce writes:
1943 Finke's Spatial System Finke's spatial system of 1943 (from van Spronsen): 1947 Stedman's Conic System D. F. Stedman, A Periodic Arrangement of the Elements, Canadian Journal of Research, 1947, 25b(3): 199210, https://doi.org/10.1139/cjr47b023 Stedman's conic system from van Spronsen: From c&en: 1949 Wringley's Lamina System Wringley's lamina system of 1949 (from van Spronsen): 1949 Riggli's Volumetric Model of the Periodic Table From the Russian Book "100 Years of Periodic Law of Chemical Elements", Nauka 1969, p.87. The caption says: "Volumetric Model of 18period Long System of D.I.Mendeleev." after Riggli (1949).
1949 Scherer's Student Model of Spiral Periodic Chart George A. Scherer, New Aids for Teaching the Periodic Law, School Science and Mathematics, vol. 49, no. 2 (1949). Rene writes:
1951 Chicago Museum of Science & Industry Periodic Table Periodic Table of Elements  Ca. 1950's  The ninetytwo elements are here arrayed in colorful and orderly fashion. These "building blocks of the universe" stand beneath the great central dome of the Museum. 1954 Sabo & Lakatosh's Volumetric Model of the Periodic Table From the Russian Book: 100 Years of Periodic Law of Chemical Elements, Nauka 1969, p.87. The caption says: "Volumetric Model of 18period Long System of D.I.Mendeleev." after Sabo and Lakatosh (1954).
1960 Unfortunately, this wonderful formulation from a Union Carbide advertisement (1960) does not work; it is not (in this author's opinion) possible to wrap the PT onto a sphere: 1961 Gamow's Wound Ribbon Periodic Table From George Gamow's 1961 book, The Atom and Its Nucleus. There is an earlier 1948 version.
1963 Royal Military College of Science Threedimensional Spiral From a Science Museum blog, Rajay Shah writes:
1965 Alexander Arrangement of Elements The Alexander Arrangement of Elements is a 3D periodic table concept based on strict adherence to the Periodic Law, and, like the first representation of elements in periods by de Chancourtois, connects every element data box in unbroken order. Roy Alexander, a Brooklyn born science museum exhibit and teaching aid designer, has told me in a personal communication: "I came up with the idea (being ignorant of anything but the flat Sargent Welch charts) in 1965. I wasn't able to patent [the downslant in the pblock] until 1971." (U.S.Patent #3,581,409) At the time Roy had no idea that others had employed a similar technique to build a 3D table  including the very first periodic table developer, de Chancourtois, who is often credited with being the original discoverer of the periodicity of elements and the originator of the threedimensional method of element arrangement and representation. These 3D forms attempt to return the Seaborg separated fblock to its proper position in the table rather than remaining exiled. This, and contemporary attitudes about Hydrogen as being in more families than one  is uniquely addressed in Roy's 3D models. Subsequent study of the Periodic Law and the periodic table's value in education convinced Roy that the basic rationale for developing the Alexander Arrangement of Elements was only one of the many good reasons for producing it for the public to share, so he sought and was granted a U.S. patent on the pblock downslant in order to manufacture and market the AAEs as teaching/learning aids. Roy Alexander's goal of introducing the AAE into classrooms, laboratories, chemistry textbooks, and reference material remains the same today, but rather than replacing the conventional charts, its niche in education is at the very point that a lesson on arrangement of atoms into a chart begins. Element sequencing (vs. 24 breaks/gaps) credits the chart as well as the Periodic Law, which establishes subsequent confidence in the common flat charts, much as the world globe establishes the reality, and flat printed projections  maps  are vital (and relished) for convenience. The first commercial production of Alexander Arrangements was in 1995, when Roy pioneered by constructing a website  periodictable.com  for marketing. Three versions were printed: two versions for student entry of element symbols, the larger diecut for easier assembly. An even larger model was produced with basic element data printed in the boxes, also die cut. These were printed on white card stock, with black ink. Another version (below) was produced in conjunction with ATMI's annual report in 2000. This was added to Roy's product offerings, called the DeskTopper, and is still available. They are die cut to form a 7.25" high model with the fblock position attached after La, but can be altered to put La on the fblock. (See AAE Features at the top of this page.) Besides the handson educational application, the DeskTopper can be used as a pen & pencil caddy, and flattened without losing the continuity of the element data. This flattened form has suggested design of a Braille periodic table of the same format, and this is also being pursued. Marketing the Alexander Arrangements was moved to AllPeriodicTables.com in cooperation with Theodore Gray in 2006, who purchased the PeriodicTable.com domain name and funded the production of Roy's newest model, illustrated with Theo's amazing element photos. For the first time, the elements beyond those naturally occurring have been omitted from a modern periodic table, simplifying initiation to chemistry. This factor denies the concept of obsolescence, and this version has been called the Forever Periodic Table. Details of this new 3D periodic table model kit have been placed at 3DPeriodicTable.com. Further AAE information and images may be found at the Alexander Arrangement website. 1965 Giguère's Periodic Table Paul Giguère's Periodic Table formulation, "The 'new look' for the periodic system". Chemistry in Canada vol. 18 (12): 36–39 (see p. 37): 1967 Mazurs' other 1967 Formulation From Edward G. Mazurs' 1974 (2nd edition) Graphic Representations of the Periodic System During One Hundred Years, University of Alabama Press:
1969 Island of Stability From Wikipedia: The island of stability in nuclear physics describes a set of asyet undiscovered isotopes of transuranium elements which are theorized to be much more stable than others. The possibility was proposed by Glenn T. Seaborg in the late 1960s: Prospectd for Further Considerable Extension of the Periodic Table, J.Chem.Educ., 46, 626633 (1969) and reprinted in Modern Alchemy: Selected Papers of Glenn T. Seaborg (1994). The hypothesis is that the atomic nucleus is built up in "shells" in a manner similar to the structure of the much larger electron shells in atoms. In both cases, shells are just groups of quantum energy levels that are relatively close to each other. 1972 Octagonal Prismatic Periodic Table In the Journal of Chemical Education (1972), Tang Wah Kow of New Method College Hong Kong, presents an octagonal prismatic periodic table: 1974 Mazurs Wooden Version of Mendeleev's Periodic Table There is a posting in the The Elements Unearthed blog by David V Black concerning a view of the Marzus archive:
1974 Mazurs' PT Formulation Analysis In his 1974 book Edward G. Mazurs (2nd edition) Graphic Representations of the Periodic System During One Hundred Years, University of Alabama Press gives a comprehensive analysis of periodic table formulations. Mazurs identifies most PT formulations as being:
1980 Periodic RoundTable Gary Katz says: "The Periodic RoundTable is a unique threedimensional model of the Periodic Table, an elegant spatial arrangement of the chemical elements that is both symmetrical and mathematical. It is the ultimate refinement of Mendeleev's scheme, one that will take us into the twentyfirst century and beyond. The Periodic RoundTable possesses such a high degree of order because it is based exclusively on the system of ideal electronic configuration, which in turn is the basis of periodicity among the elements. In the Periodic RoundTable the electron shells are filled in the same order as the elements themselves appear, demonstrating a holistic relationship between the chemistry of the elements and the orbital descriptions of their electrons." 1983 Cement Chemists Cubic Periodic Table (Model) Click here for large image. 1983 Pyramid Periodic Table (Model) Click here for large image. 1989 Stowe's A Physicist's Periodic Table The Physicist's Periodic Table by Timothy Stowe is a well know formulation for those interested in such things, but for a long time its origin was been lost. Eric Scerri has rediscovered the original formulation: a 1989 publication by the company Instruments Research and Industry (I^{2}R) Inc:
From Wikipedia, this Stowe Format Periodic Table is Based on a graphic from Scholten J."Secret Lanthanides", 2005, ISBN 9074817165; Eric Scerri has developed an updated version of the Stowe formulation, here. 1990 Dufour's Periodic Tree The Dufour Periodictree periodic table formulation, from here:
1992 Magarshak & Malinsky's Three Dimensional Periodic Table Y. Magarshak & J. Malinsky's Three Dimensional Periodic Table from Nature, 360, 114115 (1992). M&M say:
1994 fBlock Elements 3D Periodic Table From conference in Helsinki on the fBlock Elements to commemorate the bicentennial of Johan Gadolin's 1794 analysis of Yittria. Pekka Pykkö writes to say:
Claude Piguet's paper, Chimia 73 (2019) 165–172, also uses this 3D version of the standard periodic table. The text says: "Periodic table highlighting the location of Rare Earths (red elements). The elements shown in blue correspond to the actinide series":
1995 Helical Periodic Table Tarquin Publications sell a makeyourown three dimensional, helical periodic table. 1997 Good Periodic Table of The Elements From the Good Periodic Table website:
2000 Chemical Elements Pyramidal Diagram A Chemical Elements Pyramidal Diagram by Thomas Zerkov. "The present work introduces a new arrangement of the chemical elements. Unlike the most popular existing arrangements, which are twodimensional, this new arrangement is threedimensional. It organizes the elements in a pyramidal structure of four levels, giving a clear spatial expression of different relations between the chemical elements. Since the threedimensional structures are harder to perceive than the twodimensional ones, the present work also suggests a twodimensional table representation of the threedimensional pyramidal diagram, where the four levels are all placed in a single plane, instead of one above the other." 2001 ElemenTouch Periodic Table Yoshiteru MAENO writes:
2002 System Québécium Periodic Table Using Google Translate of this page:
2003 Denker's Cylinder With Bulges John Denker fully discusses the logic behind a three dimensional periodic table that he describes as a "cylinder with bulges", here: 2003 Elephant Periodic Table The periodic table does not map to an elephant very well: Click on the poster below to go to a large version: 2003 Electronegativity Periodic Table "This image distorts the conventional periodic table of the elements so that the greater the electronegativity of an atom, the higher its position in the table", here: 2003 Ukrainian Periodic Table A Periodic Table from the Ukraine: 2003 Bernard's Periodic Table of The Elements in Three Dimensional Form Hinsdale Bernard's Periodic Table of The Elements in Three Dimensional Form, US Patent 7,297,000: Roy Alexender, of the Desk Topper arrangement, has photoshopped a blurry photograph sent by Bernard along with a product mockup: 2003 TwoAmphitheater Pyramid Periodic Table From Chemical Education Journal (CEJ), Vol. 7, No. 2 A Novel Way of Visualization of the Periodic Table of the Elements by Alaa ElDeen Ali Mohamed, Alexandria University, Egypt. The author writes:
2004 Rafael Poza Periodic Table (Click to Enlarge) 2005 Pyramid Format Periodic Table From Wikipedia, this Pyramid Format Periodic Table is Based on a graphic from Scholten J."Secret Lanthanides", 2005, ISBN 9074817165; 2006 Bent's PlN and Ple (Front Step) Periodic Tables In his book, New Ideas in Chemistry from Fresh Energy for the Periodic Law, here, Henry Bent introduces the PlN and Ple (Front Step) Periodic Tables, Figs 50 & 52: 2007 Gyroscopic Periodic Table From the Garuda Biodynamics web site: "The Gyroscopic Periodic Table has been a natural progression developed from a study of Soil Science, Dr Steiner's Agriculture and Medical Courses, Astronomy and Astrology." 2007 Second Life Periodic Table From the Useful Chemistry blog: "Further adding to the set of chemistry tools in Second Life, Hiro Sheridan has created a 3D periodic table with rotating atoms. Although not directly proportional, the relative sizes of the spheres are in the correct order. Clicking on them provides basic information about the corresponding element. The 3D periodic table is available on the Chemistry Corner on Drexel Island." 2007 Bent & Weinhold's 2D/3D Periodic Tables From a paper by Henry Bent & Frank Weinhold, J. Chem. Educ., 2007, 84, 7, 1145 and here. The authors write in the abstract:
2008 Rafael Poza's Elements and the Magnetosphere
2008 ADOMAH Tetrahedron Valery Tsimmerman has developed various periodic table formulations, available at perfect perioidic table.com. 2008 Tomás A. Carroll's Spherical & Russian Doll Formulations Tomás A. Carroll has devised a spherical formulation of the Periodic Table, and from this a nested Russian Doll formulation. Tomás writes: "I accept your veiled challenge that it is not possible to formulate a spherical periodic table and propose two solutions for your consideration. The EXCEL spreadsheet shows exactly how I transformed the quantum numbers from the standard 4D Cartesian coordinates to spherical coordinates in 3D, using two different centers. I included cylindrical coordinates too, just for fun." 2008 Pyramid (Stack) Periodic Table The Janet Periodic Table of Elements (1928) may be rearranged as a series of square matrices. The matrices are of different sizes and each matrix organizes the atomic orbitals into square concentric rings. Each cell may be assigned an atomic number which also identifies a “most significant electron”. The matrices may be stacked vertically to form a periodic Pyramid Stack of Elements as shown below. The subatomic particles may also be arranged as square matrices. These matrices may be stacked. Read more here. Please send your comments to: rick_kingstone777@hotmail.com 2008 Wheel Structure Periodic Table From the Science Photo Library, a computer illustration representing the periodic table of the elements as a wheel structure.
2008 Teluric Helix from Gutierrez Samanez The Teluric Helix from Gutierrez Samanez is inspired by the telluric helix Chancortois (1864) with the difference that the sequence of the elements are rolled into a cone shape rather than a cylinder: 2009 Steve Jensen's "InFinite Form" "I'm a figurative sculptor, living in Minneapolis MN. A few years ago, while looking at a two dimensional version of the periodic table, I too wondered if it would be possible to create a Periodic Table without any visual breaks in its numerical sequence. Although I had never seen anything other than the rectangular flat table, I thought I might be able to solve this spatial continuity problem three dimensionally. I also wanted to limit myself to using a 3D "line" that had no sudden changes in direction. After coming up with what I thought was a new and unique sculptural resolution, I put the project aside. Only recently (after rebuilding my paper model out of a translucent material) did I do some research on the web, and immediately recognized the strong likeness between my version and the Alexander Arrangement. Even more surprising was my models' visual similarity to Crookes' figure eight design from some 111 years ago. "Although there are obviously many inventive and well thought out responses to this design challenge, I believe that my solution is a unique one, and an improvement over some of the previous three dimensional forms. The "line" of my model allows for contiguous numerical placement of all the symbols (while maintaining group continuity along its vertical axis), even as the shape of its plan view makes visual reference to the wellknown symbol for infinity. What's more, in my version, the Lanthanide & Actinide series do not occupy a separate field but are fully integrated into the continuous linear flow. This piece, which I've entitled "InFinite Form" speaks to the mystery of the endless flow of space, even as it folds back onto itself within the confines of a finite system." 2009 Graphic Representations of the Periodic System Mary E. Saecker writes an article in Chemical Education Digital Library, Periodic Table Presentations and Inspirations: Graphic Representations of the Periodic System, that reviews some periodic table formunations. The paper contains a link to this pdf file which gives templates and instructions for several print, cutout & build periodic table formulations:
2009 Nasco's Periodic Table TossUp Ball Toss some fun around the classroom with this 15" inflatable ball challenging students to name 118 elements from the Periodic Table. Two or more players toss the ball to each other, giving the element name for the number and symbol on which their left thumb lands. Answer sheet and instructions included. Grade 6 to adult. 2009 Russian MedFlower Periodic Table Google Russian to English translation: From Secology.Narod.RU: "Must also give up the basic heuristic principle of Mendeleev and follow him. Forget about the group, we will not argue with what period begins, but just consistently and continuously to build all the elements in a row in ascending order, and fold this series into a spatial helix, in the corporeal form, allowing the convergence of such chemical elements in the vertical..." 2010 3D Strange Periodic Table As Lewis Page of The Register puts it: "Top flight international reversealchemy boffins say they have managed to transmute gold into an entirely new form of 'negatively strange' antihypernucleic antimatter...", here. The effect is to add a third dimension of quark strangeness to the periodic table. Read the abstract by the STAR Collaboration. 2010 Harrington Projection for The 270 AMU Structure From Bill Harrington, Founder/CTO of Rainforest Reactor Research and Temporal Dynamics Laboratory, comes a Harrington Projection for The 270 AMU Structure : 2011 Bayeh's Theoretical Periodic Table of Elements "The modern periodic table is based on quantum numbers and blocks, many problems faced the scientists and researchers when arranging the elements in the traditional and modern periodic tables as placing some elements in the incorrect place as (He) Helium, (La) Lanthanide and many others elements..." read the full pdf article here: 2011 StoweJanetScerri Periodic Table Eric Scerri made contact, writing: "Following the discussions on Periodic Table debate on the Chemistry Views website here, and as a result of recent turns, I have developed a new periodic table which I believe combines virtues of the Stowe table and also the Janet leftstep table. I propose the name StoweJanetScerri Periodic Table. The explanation is posted on the Chemistry Views debate pages. 2011 Bayeh's Theoretical 3D Periodic Tables From Bayeh Claude: "I have designed these periodic tables as developments of Bayeh's Theoretical Periodic Table, but I have introduced new shapes and 3D versions":
2011 Pacholek's Multipipe 3D Periodic Table "I've recently invented a new type of periodic table. My table is 3dimensional and is similar to the ADOMAH Periodic Table, but it's also very different from the ADOMAH Tetrahedron. Its main advantage is being fully geometric in the plane spanned by n, l and n+l quantum numbers." Take a look at the Picasa images here and here: 2011 Alashvili Rotating Spherical Periodikal Tabel A nice rotating, spherical (3D) periodic table by Tornike Alashvili, from Georgia, which can be viewed here as a .swf image: 2011 Normal vs Correction Shell "Pi Paradox" for 1270 AMUs From Bill Harrington, Founder/CTO of Rainforest Reactor Research and Temporal Dynamics Laboratory, comes a Normal vs Correction Shell "Pi Paradox" for 1270 AMUs: 2011 Weise's Tetrahedron Dmitry Weise shows how it is possible to go from the Janet [leftstep] periodic table formulation, to a tetrahedral formulation. Dmitry writes:
Jess Tauber adds:
2012 Alexander Arrangement of Elements, 3D Illustrated The design of the 2012 Alexander Arrangement of Elements (AAE) follows the principles of a threedimensional model developed by Roy Alexander in 1965: a printed representation of element information based on strict adherence to the Periodic Law, with every element data box physically and visually contiguous and continuous within the sequence of atomic numbers in generally accepted element property related columns  "...the periodic table the way it's supposed to be". This is made possible by wrapping, folding, and joining the printed material and employing the patented pblock downslant of the element data boxes to allow the end element of a period to be adjacent to the first element of the next period. Several unique features separate it from the previous four versions of the AAE
Designed by Roy Alexander, a science museum exhibit and teaching aid designer, the Adobe Illustrator art for the model was started by Ann Grafelman, and continued by Roy from mid 2011 through November of 2012. Photos were provided by Theodore Gray, and Element Collection funded the printing and die cutting performed by Strine Printing in York, Pennsylvania. The model kit was first offered at Theo's PeriodicTable.com, then at Roy's AllPeriodicTables.com and the new 3dPeriodicTable.com, which site is dedicated to the 3D Forever Periodic Table only, with addons, application suggestions, and descriptions and commentary of all sorts. Assembly instructions and step photos, as well as a number or completed model color photographs are included with the kit. These were developed with prototype models, and while functional, have been upgraded and accompanied by an assembly video at AlexanderArrangementOfElements.com/3D Addendum: Text relating to the abbreviation of the ever increasing number of elements is explained at two places on the 3D AAE illustrated periodic table model kit. One will remain with the model and one is removed at the time of assembly. That which remains runs under the Actinoids and the dblock elements, where the lab created elements might ordinarily be expected to be found, says:
That which is removed says:
Included with the art of the periodic table on the die cut substrate that makes up the model is some background information about the the history of three dimensional periodic tables. The first of these is about the discoverer of the concept of arranging the elements in periods suggested by the properties of the elements, de Chancourtois. The second 3D periodic table information piece (on the rear of the de Chancourtois removable card) are sketches of a number of the 3D periodic tables found on the Chemogenesis website. 2013 4D StoweJanetScerri Periodic Table By Jgmoxness "I've replaced the standard periodic table in the 7th "Chemistry Pane" of my E8 visualizer with a 2D/3D/4D StoweJanetScerri version of the Periodic Table." "Interestingly, it has 120 elements, which is the number of vertices in the 600 Cell or the positive half of the 240 E8 roots. It is integrated into VisibLie_E8 so clicking on an element adds that particular atomic number's E8 group vertex number to the 3rd E8 visualizer pane. The code is a revision and extension of Enrique Zeleny's Wolfram Demonstration": 2013 3D Left Step Periodic Table By Masahiko Suenaga, Kyushu University, Japan a 3D Left Step Periodic Table. "Inspired by the work of Dr. Tsimmerman and Dr. Samanez, I have created a new 3D Left Step Periodic Table, which resembles to Mt. Fuji, recently registered as a World Heritage site. For more information, please visit my website": 2013 Bernard Periodic Spiral The Bernard Periodic Spiral of the Elements (BPSE), depicts a novel rendition of the Periodic Table that replaces the flat rectangular format with a continuous unidirectional spiral that maintains all the properties of Group and Period formation. Comparisons may be made with similar models spanning the last three decades of the 20th century (Alexander, 1971; Mazurs, 1974; & Kaufman, 1999). In the chart form, this new rendition is referred to as the Elliptical Periodic Chart of the Elements. In the threedimensional form, the model resembles a Christmas tree in shape with the 7 Periods represented as circular platforms situated at various levels with the elements placed appropriately at the outer edges of each of these platforms as a Period builds up. The elements may be represented as spherical objects or flat discs with radii proportionate to atomic radii (or reasonable approximations). Color schemes accentuate the four different Blocks of elements: the sBlock (green), the pBlock (blue, with the exception that the last Group is red signifying the end of a Period), dBlock (orange), and the fBlock (yellow). The grey section, called the GroupPeriod Interchange, is where the end of a particular Period connects to the beginning of the next Period, and, at the same time, transitions from Group 18 to Group 1. Watch the video here:
2013 Model Wooden Periodic TableFrom here, and translated from Spanish:
2013 Atomic Periodic Town Three related formulations by Baha Tangour (Tangour Bahoueddine), the Atomic Town and two Boomerang periodic tables.
2014 ADOMAH Periodic Table Glass Cube Valery Tsimmerman, of the ADOMAH Periodic Table and the ADOMAH Tetrahedron, has now used these ideas to produce a beautiful glass cube:
This amazing object is available for sale from Grand Illusions:
A Note by Philip Stewart stewart.phi@gmail.com The cube represents 120 chemical elements etched into a cube of Optical Crystal glass. The s, p, d, and f blocks of the Janet periodic table form four rectangles, which are slices of a regular tetrahedron, parallel with two of its edges and with two faces of the circumscribed cube. All four quantum numbers are made visible in this arrangement. You can see a 2D version on the Perfect Periodic Table website, click on the "skyscraper" version on the right to see the tetrahedron, and go to Regular Tetrahedron at foot of page for details. The regular tetrahedron is the only form in which slices are rectangles of different shape and identical perimeter. When each orbital is represented by a square of unit edge, the rectangles representing the blocks all have the same perimeter, which is twice the length of the edges of the tetrahedron (which are of course √2 times the edges of the cube): 18 units = 2(values of n + values of m_{l}).
Valery Tsimmerman, orahct@gmail.com, creator of the design, has written to me as follows:
Adomah is a variant of Adamah, Hebrew for 'dust of the earth', from which Adam was made (Genesis 2:7). 2014 Gutierrez Samanez's Binodic Form of the Periodic Table (Video) 2014 Rogue Elements: What's Wrong with the Periodic Table An article in New Scientist by Celeste Biever (news editor at Nature), Image by Martin Reznik
2014 UVS Periodic Tables From the Universal Vortical Singularity (UVS) website, two related formunations from the nucleosynthesis in the universe section, one showing a "manifold dualcore 3sphere hypersphere topology", and the other showing a "dualcore Möbius strip topology": 2014 Arrangement of Elements 7th Order & Element Sequences An exploration of some mathematics underlying the periodic table, read the PDF here, by Olivier Joseph. Oliver says:
2015 UVS Periodic Table Model of a Klein Bottle Topology This configuration can topologically suggest the gblock cycle in the 8th period for extended periodic table. In the Klein bottle topology as illustrated, it is plausible that after the sblock cycle in the 8th periodical cycle, the topological path continues to spiral around the outer fblock cycle to harmonically form 14 elements. And then subjected to the spiral Möbius strip topological twist, it could resonate to form 4 more elements in the anticyclonic path around 17th, 18th, 1st, and 2nd angular phases of the anticyclonic core; this would render the 18 elemental positions for the hypothetical gblock cycle in the entire halfintegral anticyclonic cycle of the Klein bottle topology. Hypothetically, the topological path then moves into the cyclonic cycle, and harmonically forms its dblock and pblock cycles with 16 elemental positions to complete the 8th periodical cycle with a total of 36 elements. 2015 Pams Quantum Periodic Table By Dr. N. D. Raju, the Pams Quantum Periodic Table. Read the full paper discussing the logic of the new formulation. 2016 Instructables 3D Periodic Table From Makendo on the Instructables website:
2017 Stowe's A Physicist's Periodic Table UPDATED Stowe's 'A Physicist's Periodic Table' was published in 1989, and is a famous & well respected formulation of the periodic table. Since 1989 quite a number of elements have been discovered and Jeries A. Rihani has produced an updated and extended version. Click here to see the full size .pdf version: 2017 Clock Prism Periodic Table, Braille Version From the prolific Nagayasu Nawa, a Braille version of the Clock Prism periodic table: 2017 Stewart's Chemosphere P J Stewart, a good friend of the periodic table database, has mapped a PT onto a sphere.
2017 Kurushkin's Spiral Periodic Table Mikhail Kurushkin has a way of constructing the standard long form periodic table from the Janet LeftStep formulation. Mikhail writes in his J.Chem.Educ paper DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.7b00242; J. Chem. Educ. 2017, 94, 976?979
2018 StoweJanetScerri Periodic Table (Extended) Stowe's A Physicist's Periodic Table was published in 1989, and is a famous & well respected formulation of the periodic table. Since 1989 quite a number of elements have been discovered and Jeries A. Rihani has produced an updated and extended version in 2017. This has been further updated, below. Click for the full size .pdf version: 2018 Nawa's 3D Octagonal Pillar A 3D octagonal pillar periodic table model by Nawa, "acccording to Scerri's reverse engineering [of] Mendeleev's 8column table": 2018 Telluric Remix Philip Stewart writes:
The printable version is available (click here for the full size version) to make your own: I have not claimed copyright; please copy and share but acknowledge my authorship. stewart.phi@gmail.com 2018 Sistema Peridico Binodico By Julio Antonio Gutiérrez Samanez, who writes:
2018 Periodical System (Binodic Form): a new mathematical paradigm By Julio Antonio Gutiérrez Samanez, who writes:
2018 Simpson's 4Dimensional Version of the ADOMAH Periodic Table Doug Simpson writes:
2018 Space's Elements in Six Dimensions By Tom Space, The Elements in Six Dimensions, arranged by volume periods of nuclide mass averages: 2019 ElementBook Braille version of the AAE From Roy Alexander of the AAE (Alexander Arrangement of the Elements):
2019 Telluric Remix in Colour Philip Stewart writes (this is the same text that accompanies the 2018 B/W version):
I have not claimed copyright; please copy and share but acknowledge my authorship. stewart.phi@gmail.com 2019 Grainger's Elemental Periodicity with "Concentric Spheres Intersecting Orthogonal Planes" Formulation From Tony Grainger, an Elemental Periodicity formulation with concentric spheres intersecting orthogonal planes. Tony writes:
There are two images of this 3D formulation: an "inside_corner_below/outside_corner_above" (top image) and an "outside_corner_below/inside_corner_above" lower image.
2019 Schaltenbrand's Helical Gathering of the Elements From the RSC Website:
2019 Stewart's Quantahedron Formulation From Philip Stewart, here & here, comes a three dimensional Quantahedron Formulation. Philip writes:
2019 Frog Periodic Table One of the frogs from Stockport's (UK) Giant Leap Frog Art Trail. This frog is Chemit.
2019 Scott Van Note Periodic Table Sculpture On the Saatchi Art website, a 3D periodic table Sculpture by Scott Van Note. Sculpture: Metal (Bronze). Ten made for the local ASM international chapter. Loops and changes of direction show electron shell filling. S,P,D,F with S just a change of direction. Continuous spiral from top to bottom. New loops introduce as the electron shell would. Does not show the outoforder shell filling. Keywords: periodic, science, sculpture, functional, nerd
2019 Alexander Arrangement Unwrapped... and Rewrapped In mid2019 Roy Alexander – of the Alexander Arrangement – produced an intriguing new formulation in sketch form that shows the p, d & f blocks moving away from the s block in three dimensional space: Roy has now expanded this into a full blown new formulation. (Click image to enlarge): 2019 Weise's Tetrahedral Periodic Table A Facebook video by Dmitry Weise showing how the conventional periodic table can be morphed into a tetrahedral formulation via the Janet Left Step:
2019 Cylindrical Periodic Table of Elements Two YouTube videos by Takehiko Ishiguro (original & updated): Cylindrical Periodic Table of Elements. Three types of the cylindrical periodic table of elements are demonstrated with a rotating table. Comments on them are given at the end of the video (in English).
© Mark R. Leach 1999 Queries, Suggestions, Bugs, Errors, Typos... If you have any:
This free, open access web book is an ongoing project and your input is appreciated. 


