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Database of Periodic Tables

There are hundreds of periodic tables in web space, but there is only one comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Dr Mark R Leach.

pre 1900 formulations 1900 to 1949 formulations 1950 to 1999 formulations 2000 to 2009 formulations Spiral formulations 3 dimensional formulations
Data mapping periodic tables Miscellaneous periodic tables Books and reviews non-chemistry periodic tables All periodic tables

Periodic Table formulations from the years 1900 - 1949, by date:

1900     Elements Known in The Year 1900
1901     Discovery of Europium
1902     Brauner's Table
1902     Erdmann's Spiral Table
1902     Blitz's Periodensystem der Elemente
1902     Discovery of Actinium
1904     Benedicks' Periodic Table
1904     Mendeleev's 1904 Periodic Table
1904     Ramsay's Periodic Arrangement of The Elements
1905     Werner's Periodic Table Arrangement
1905     Gooch & Walker Periodic Table
1905     Gooch & Walker's Periodic System of The Elements
1905     Gooch & Walker's Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Series of Elements
1906     Mendeleev's 1906 Periodic Table
1906     Discovery of Lutetium
1907     Chronology of Splitting The Rare Earths: "Ceria" & "Yttria"
1907     van den Broek's  Periodic Table
1908     Young's Table
1911     Adams' Periodic Table
1911     Emerson's Helix
1911     Soddy's Three-Dimensional System
1911     Baur's Periodic Table
1913     Moseley's Periodic Law
1913     Rhydberg's Table
1913     Discovery of Protactinium
1914     Hackh's Periodic Table
1915     Crehore's Periodic System
1916     Harkins & Hall's Periodic Table
1916     Dushman's Periodic Table
1917     CRC Periodic Table
1918     Hackh's Classification of the Elements
1918     Meyer's (Stephan) Periodisches System der Elemente
1919     Langmuir's Periodic Table
1919     Hackh's Classification of the Elements, Updated
1919     Hackh's Periodic Spiral
1919     Hackh's Periodic Chain
1919     Discovery of Rhenium
1920     Nodder's Periodic Table
1920     Partington's Periodic Arrangement of the Elements
1920     Schaltenbrand's Helical Periodic Table
1920     Kohlweiler's System
1921     Margary's Periodic Table
1922     Bohr's System
1922     Discovery of Hafnium
1923     Deming's Periodic Table
1923     Deming’s Other 1923 Periodic Table: Mendeleev style
1924     Hubbard Periodic Chart Of The Atoms
1925     Friend's Periodic System
1925     Noddack's Periodic Table
1925     Deming's (Updated) Periodic Table
1925     Courtines' A Model of the Periodic Table
1925     Sommerfield's Electon Filling Diagram
1926     Andreas von Antropoff's Periodic Table
1926     Monroe & Turner's Spiral
1926     Russell's Periodic Chart of The Elements 1
1926     Russell's Periodic Chart of The Elements 2
1926     Hopkins' Nearly Completed Periodic Table of The Elements
1928     Janet's Helicoidal Classification
1928     Janet's Lemniscate Formulation
1928     Janet's Left Step Periodic Table
1928     Janet's Three-Dimensional Spiral-Tube System
1928     Riesenfeld's Periodic Table
1930     Janet's Shell Filling Diagram
1930     Nekrasov Periodic Table
1930     Gardner & Mazzucchelli's Periodic System Elaborated as Electronic Configuration
1932     Stareck's Natural Periodic System
1933     Quam's Periodic Chart
1933     Rixon's Diagram of the Periodic Table
1933     Clark's Periodic Arrangement of The Elements
1933     After Crookes: The Periodic Law
1934     Brazilian Version of The Hubbard Periodic Chart Of The Atoms
1934     Romanoff's System
1934     Leningrad Monument To The Periodic Table
1934     White's Periodic Table
1935     Zmaczynski's Triangular Periodic Table
1936     Orbital Filling
1936     Libedinski's Periodic Classification of The Elements
1937     Pozzi's Spiral Periodic Table
1937     Zmaczynski's Fan-Shaped System
1937     Discovery of Technetium
1939     Irwin's Periodic Table
1939     Discovery of Francium
1940     Discovery of Astatine
1940     Discovery of Neptunium
1940     Discovery of Plutonium
1942     Paneth's Table
1942     Barber & Taylor Periodic Table
1943     Finke's Spatial System
1943     Luder's Electron Configuration Periodic Table
1944     Müller's Tree System
1944     Seaborg's Periodic Table of 1944
1944     Discovery of Americium
1944     Discovery of Curium
1945     Segré Chart of Elements & Isotopes
1945     Seaborg's Periodic Table of 1945
1945     Krafft's Periodic Table (1945)
1945     Discovery of Promethium
1946     Achimof's System
1947     Steadman's Design
1947     Stedman's Conic System
1948     Gamow [First] Ribbon Periodic Table
1949     Pauling's Formulation
1949     Clarke's Periodic Arrangement of The Elements (1949)
1949     Wringley's Lamina System
1949     Antropoff's Representation of the Periodic System Revised by Fritz Scheele
1949     Discovery of Berkelium
1949     Riggli's Volumetric Model of the Periodic Table


1900

Elements Known in the Year 1900

Elements known in the year 1900, taken from this Wikipedia page:

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1901

Discovery of Europium

Eu

Europium, atomic number 63, has a mass of 151.964 au.

Europium was first observed or predicted in 1896 by E.-A. Demarçay and first isolated in 1901 by E.-A. Demarçay. It took about 80 years to split the rare earths metal ores, the ceria & yttria, into the pure metals. See the timeline here. It took about 80 years to split the rare earths metal ores, the ceria & yttria, into the pure metals. See the timeline here.

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1902

Brauner's Table

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1902

Erdmann's Spiral Table

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1902

Blitz's Periodensystem der Elemente

Periodic Table of Biltz (1902) with an intraperiodic accommodation of the rare earths. Reproduced from Biltz, H., 1902. Ber. 35 (562), 4242:

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1902

Discovery of Actinium

Ac

Actinium, atomic number 89, has a mass of 227 au.

Radioactive element.

Actinium was first isolated in 1902 by F. O. Giesel.

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1904

Benedicks' Periodic Table

Periodic Table of Benedicks (1904) with an intraperiodic accommodation of the rare earths. Reproduced from Benedicks, C., 1904. Z. Anorg. Chem. 39, 41:

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1904

Mendeleev's 1904 Periodic Table

Mendeleev periodic table formulation from 1904.

This formulation was prepared to go with Mendeleev's article predicting that the ether (aether) would be found at the head of group zero in period zero. Also that dashes are left for six elements between H and He.

The predicted elements eka-boron (scandium), eka-aluminium (gallium) & eka-silicon (germanium) are present but the radioactive eka-manganese (technetium) is not. Also, the noble gas elements are on the left hand side of the formulation:

Thanks to Philip Stewart for the corrections and details.

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1904

Ramsay's Periodic Arrangement of The Elements

From Scientific American in 1904, an article by Sir William Ramsay discussing the Periodic Arrangement of The Element:

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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1905

Werner's Periodic Table Arrangement

Above from Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf and below from Eric Scerri.

Eric comments that the interesting features are:

  • A remarkably modern looking formulation in that it separates not only the transition metals but also the rare earths into separate blocks to give what we would now call a "long-form 32 column table". Except Werner guessed wrong as to how many rare earths exist, with the result that he shows 33 groups.
  • This formulation is also interesting for showing an element between H and He and two elements before H.
  • Werner computed the average gaps between atomic weights for the second through the fifth periods as 1.85, 2.4, 2.47 and 2.5, respectively.
  • From this he extrapolated the gap for the first period as 1.5, which coincidentally was also half the difference between the atomic weights of H and He. Werner thus predicted a new element with atomic weight 2.5.
  • Moseley's work of 1913 showed there were no elements before H and none between H and He.

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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1905

Gooch & Walker Periodic Table

Mazurs' reproduction (p. 82) of a periodic table formulation by Frank Austin Gooch and Claude Frederic Walker, from Outlines of Inorganic Chemistry, Macmillan, London and New York, p. 8/9, 1905 (ref Mazurs p.188):

Thanks to Laurie Palmer for the tip, and to Philip Stewart for the corrections and details.

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1905

Gooch & Walker's Periodic System of The Elements

From a 1905 textbook by Gooch & Walker: Outlines of Inorganic Chemistry (see the Google Books scanned version pp273) comes an early 'right-step' periodic table. The formulation was reproduced in a 1917 textbook (lower image).

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed

 

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1905

Gooch & Walker's Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Series of Elements

This three dimensional formulation – clearly developed from the Crookes' vis generatrix model – is given a 1905 textbook by Gooch & Walker: Outlines of Inorganic Chemistry (see the Google Books scanned version pp273).

"The arrangement of the elements in three series of eight groups each may be represented by a model in which large and small wooden balls, on a spiral wire, represent the common and rare elements respectively; those balls falling in the same vertical column representing elements in the same groups":

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1906

Mendeleev's 1906 Periodic Table

Mendeleev's periodic table of 1906, the last drawn up by Mendeleev himself, and published in the 8th edition of his textbook, Principles of Chemistry. He died in 1907.

  • H retains the position of 1871
  • The triad of Cu, Ag, Au is still duplicated.
  • The noble gases are Group O
  • This arrangement predates the concepts of atomic number and electron configuration
  • Coronium is shown with a dash

Thanks to Philip Stewart for the corrections.

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1906

Discovery of Lutetium

Lu

Lutetium, atomic number 71, has a mass of 174.967 au.

Lutetium was first isolated in 1906 by C. A. von Welsbach and G. Urbain. It took about 80 years to split the rare earths metal ores, the ceria & yttria, into the pure metals. See the timeline here.

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1907

Chronology of Splitting The Rare Earths: "Ceria" & "Yttria"

Chronology of chemically the splitting of "ceria" (mixed oxides) into the pure rare-earth metals:

Chronology of chemically the splitting of "yttria" (mixed oxides) into the pure rare-earth metals:

 

From: CRC Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Chapter 248. Accommodation of the Rare Earths in the Periodic Table: A Historical Analysis by Pieter Thyssen and Koen Binnemans (ISBN: 978-0-444-53590-0)

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1907

van den Broek Periodic Table

From Wikipedia: Antonius Johannes van den Broek (1870–1926) was a Dutch amateur physicist notable for being the first who realized that the number of an element in the periodic table (now called atomic number) corresponds to the charge of its atomic nucleus.

This hypothesis was published in 1911 and inspired the experimental work of Henry Moseley, who found good experimental evidence for it by 1913.

The van den Broek formulation:

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1908

Young's Table

From Young's textbook Stoichiometry (1908):

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1911

Adams' Periodic Table

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1911

Emerson's Helix

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf:

Another version of Emerson's Helix from "100 Years of Periodic Law of Chemical Elements, Nauka 1969, p. 74:

Thanks to Larry T for the tip!

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1911

Soddy's Three-Dimensional System

Soddy's three-dimensional system of 1911 (from van Spronsen):

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1911

Baur's Periodic Table

Baur's periodic table, from Baur, E., 1911. Z. Phys. Chem. 76, 659:

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1913

Moseley's Periodic Law

Henry Moseley (1887-1915) subjected known elements to x-rays and was able to derive a relationship between x-ray frequency and number of protons.

From Scientific American:

"It was the clever young English physicist, Moseley, who discovered that the atomic number for each element was the number of external electrons in the atom.

"With this discovery came a law concerning the X-ray lines of any element in an X-ray target.

"Moseley's law states that the wavelength of these lines is inversely proportional to the square of the atomic number of the element. Therefore, if we know the atomic number of the element we are looking for, we can predict the wavelength of· certain lines in its X-ray spectrum.

"If we set up our X-ray spectrograph so as to catch these lines where we expect them to fall, then, if the element is present in the target which we have chosen to use in our X-ray tube, we should know it. This provides one good way to identify difficult elements, but it is well to have another to use as a check. One of the best of these, and one which is almost as sensi- tive as the X-ray method, is that of positive.ray analysis."

From his paper, The High Frequency Spectra of The Elements, H. G. J. Moseley, M. A. Phil. Mag. (1913), p. 1024, available here:

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1913

Rhydberg's Table

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1913

Discovery of Protactinium

Pa

Protactinium, atomic number 91, has a mass of 231.036 au.

Radioactive element: Pa is only found in tiny amounts in nature. Most samples are synthetic.

Protactinium was first observed or predicted in 1913 by O. H. Göhring and K. Fajans and first isolated in 1927 by A. von Grosse.

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1914

Hackh's Spiral Periodic Table

Ingo Hackh's spiral periodic table of 1914, from Das Synthetisches System der Atome, Hamburg, Hephaestos.

Philip Stewart says:

"I believe that Hackh's 1914 spiral is of special interest it is the first spiral to take account of Mosley's atomic numbers, and the first to show successively larger pairs of coils. It is also interesting because H stands alone in the centre. I have only seen Mazurs' redrawn (as usual!) version, but Mazurs gives SciAm Supplement 1919 as one reference."

This is the Mazurs version:

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1915

Crehore's Periodic System

[Part of] Crehore's periodic system, with the electronic configurations of the atoms, from Crehore, Gyroscopic Theory, p 323 (1915).

Crehore adopted Rydberg's ordinal number, implying the existance of two elements between hydrogen and helium.

Note the absence of groups VI and VII and that beryllium is shown as "Gl", glacinium.

From H. Kragh, Resisting the Bohr Atom, Perspectives in Physics, 13, (2011), 4-35:

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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1916

Harkins & Hall's Periodic Table

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1916

Dushman's Periodic Table

By Dushman et al., a take on Mendeleeve's Periodic System:

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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1917

CRC Periodic Table

A periodic table from the 1924 CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics showing 79 elements. The text says "Revised To 1917". From here.

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1918

Hackh's Classification of the Elements

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1918

Meyer's Periodisches System der Elemente

Periodic Table of Meyer (1918) with an intraperiodic accommodation of the rare earths. Reproduced from Meyer, S., 1918. Phys. Z. 19, 178.

Philip Stewart has provided a bit more detail:

Stefan Meyer (1872–1949) was an Austrian physicist, no relation of Julius Lothar Meyer. He had a special interest in 'rare earth' and radioactive elements. He published several versions of the periodic table. In this definitive version of 1918, note elements 69-72. Tu I is 'thulium I', Ad is Aldeberanium (Yb), Cp is Cassiopeium (Lu) and Tu II is 'thulium II' (Hf).:

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1919

Langmuir's Periodic Table

Irving Langmuir's 1919 periodic table formulation using chemical properties rather than arguments from the emerging quantum theory:

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1919

Hackh's Classification of the Elements, Updated

From a Scientific American in March 1919, an article by Ingo W. D. Hackh discussing the classification of the elements.

Shown is a periodic table slightly updated from a version from two years before, and referenced by Quam & Quam:

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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1919

Hackh's Periodic Spiral

From a Scientific American in March 1919, an article by Ingo W. D. Hackh discussing the classification of the elements.

Included is a periodic spiral, developed from Hackh's 1914 version:

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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1919

Hackh's Periodic Chain

From a Scientific American in March 1919, an article by Ingo W. D. Hackh discussing the classification of the elements.

Included is a periodic chain showing the redox states of the elements:

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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1919

Discovery of Rhenium

Re

Rhenium, atomic number 75, has a mass of 186.207 au.

Rhenium was first observed or predicted in 1908 by M. Ogawa and first isolated in 1919 by M. Ogawa.

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1920

Nodder's Periodic Table

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1920

Partington's Periodic Arrangement of the Elements

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1920

Schaltenbrand's Helical Periodic Table

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1920

Kohlweiler's System

Kohlweiler's system of 1920 (from van Spronsen):

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1921

Margary's Periodic Table

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1922

Bohr's System

Niel's Bohr's system of 1922 (Theory of Spectra and Atomic Constitution, Cambridge University Press) and as repoduced by van Spronsen:

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1922

Discovery of Hafnium

Hf

Hafnium, atomic number 72, has a mass of 178.49 au.

Hafnium was first isolated in 1922 by D. Coster and G. von Hevesy.

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1923

Deming Periodic Table

H.G. Deming used the long periodic table in his textbook General Chemistry, which appeared in the USA for the first time in 1923 (Wiley), and designated the first two and the last five Main Groups with the notation "A", and the intervening Transition Groups with the notation "B".

The numeration was chosen so that the characteristic oxides of the B groups would correspond to those of the A groups. The iron, cobalt, and nickel groups were designated neither A nor B. The Noble Gas Group was originally attached (by Ueming) to the left side of the periodic table. The group was later switched to the right side and usually labeled as Group VlllA.

This version of the periodic table was distributed for many years by the Sargent-Welch Scientific Company, Skokie, Illinois, USA.:

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1923

Deming’s Other 1923 Periodic Table: Mendeleev style

Deming’s "other" 1923 periodic table: a Mendeleev style formulation with an unusual metal-non-metal dividing line:

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1924

Hubbard Periodic Chart Of The Atoms

The American classic Henry Hubbard Periodic Chart Of The Atoms went through 12 editions.

A 1924 original on a dining room wall:

The current Sargent Welch version of the Henry Hubbard Periodic Table:

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1925

Friend's Periodic System

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1925

Noddack Periodic Table

Ida Noddack studied the periodic table in the first half of the 20th century and was the co-discoverer of the last non-radioactive element to be isolated, rhenium. Later she worked on nuclear fission. In 1925 presented Noddack her formulation:

From Ida Noddack and the Missing Elements by Fathi Habashi, Education in Chemistry (March 2009)

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1925

Deming's (Updated) Periodic Table

This 1925 table has the Heavy Metals spread out, and the Rare Earth Elements (fifteen, including La and Lu) withdrawn into a box that is divorced from the body of the table. Ce, Gd, Yb form a vertical triad.

Th is assigned to Group IV below Hf.

From Michael Laing's paper: A Revised Periodic Table with the Lanthanides Repositioned, Found. Chem. (2005) 7: 203–233

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1925

Courtines' A Model of the Periodic Table or Periodic Classification

Published in J. Chem. Ed., 2, 2, 107-109 in 1925 by M. Courtines of the Laboratory of Experimental Physics, College of France, Paris.

We do not know the date of the forth image (below), but it looks as if it was prepared a few years later. However, it is a 'top down' view of the 3D formulation.

Courtines 3D PT

Courtines PT

Courtines classification

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

Courtines classification

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed

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1925

Sommerfield's Electon Filling Diagram

Arnold Sommerfeld diagram appears in an issue of Memoirs and Proceedings of the manchester Literary and Philosophical Society for 1925-26. volume 70, p. 141-151.

Eric Scerri writes:

"The electron groupings are not exactly the same as what is believed to exist today but it amounts to the same order of filling. For example p orbitals were thought to consist of two groups of 2 and 4 electrons, rather than 2, 2, 2 as believed today. Similarly d orbitals were thought to be formed of two groups of 4 and 6 electrons. With that in mind you will see that Sommerfeld was the first to propose an aufbau filling system: The occupation of 4s before 3d or as represented here the 2 electrons in orbit 11 followed by the 4 and 6 from orbits 3,s and 3,3.

"Sommerfeld does indicate sub-shells. They are just not the same groupings as the current ones. For example 2,1 and 2,2 indicates subshells within the 2nd main shell. Similarly the 3rd shell is presented as 3,2 and 3,3. The totals are of course the same, namely 6 for what we now call p orbitals and 10 for what we call d orbitals. All this came before the discovery of the 4th or spin quantum number. This is in keeping with Bohr's original assignment of shells and sub-shells.

"The discovery of sub-structure to electron shells was not an 'all or nothing' development, but a gradual and almost organic evolution."

Eric has a new book out – A Tale of Seven Scientists and a New Philosophy of Science – in which the gradual evolution of electronic structure involving Bohr, Sommerfeld, Bury, Main Smith, Pauli and others is traced out.

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip! 
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed

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1926

Andreas von Antropoff's Periodic Table

The Andreas von Antropoff periodic table, restored by Philip Stewart on the basis of the article 'Eine neue Form des periodischen Systems der Elementen'. Zeitschrift für angewandte Chemie 39, pp. 722-725, 1926:

This formulation has a satisfying balance compared to most other tables and was the most popular wall-chart in German schools for many years but quickly disappeared after von Antropoff was disgraced in 1945 for his Nazi activities: he presided over the raising of the swastika over Bonn University in 1933. But he put science above politics and was a stout defender of Einstein's theories.

A recently restored wall version of the von Antropoff formulation from the University of Barcelona, origionally painted in 1934 (thanks to Philip Stewart & Claudi Mans):

 

Perhaps it was the disgrace of von Antropoff which led Linus Pauling to borrow his design, without acknowledgement, for his 1949 book, General Chemistry (and subsequently in later editions of The Chemical Bond).

The PT below is scanned in from Pauling's The Nature of The Chemical Bond, 3rd ed., 1960:

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1926

Monroe & Turner's Spiral

Monroe and Turner's spiral, in which they correctly place the actinides. Information supplied by Philip Stewart.

Ref. is C J Monroe and W D Turner A new Periodic Table of the Elements, J Chem Ed, 3, 1058-65, 1926

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1926

Walter Russell's Periodic Chart of The Elements 1

Walter Russell's Periodic Chart of The Elements 1. View other formulations and an interview here:

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1926

Walter Russell's Periodic Chart of The Elements 2

Walter Russell's Periodic Chart of The Elements 2. View other formulations and an interview here:

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1926

Hopkins' Nearly Completed Periodic Table of The Elements

From a Scientific American of March 1927, an article by B.S. Hopkins discussing the building blocks of the universe.

Included is The Nearly Completed [Hubbard Type] Periodic Table of the Elements from 1926.

As Eric Scerri pointed out: "Notice element, 43, masurium, according to Noddack, Noddack and Berg, and later synthesized as Tc":

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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1928

Janet's Helicoidal Classification

Janet's Helicoidal Classification, essentially his left-step formulation in its spiral version (ref. Charles Janet, La Classification Hélicoïdale des Éléments Chimiques. Beauvais: Imprimerie Départementale de l'Oise. 1928). Information supplied by Philip Stewart:

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1928

Janet's "Lemniscate" Formulation

From in The Helicoidal Classification of the Elements, Chemical News vol. 138, 21 June 1929, Fig. XI, p. 392:

Philip Stewart points out that this formulation is an 'end on' view of the Janet Cylinder or Three-Dimensional Spiral-Tube System formulation, and the term "lemniscate" comes from Mazurs.

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1928

Janet's Left Step Periodic Table

There are the three versions of Janet's left step PT. He tried out versions I and II in his April 1928 paper, and rejected them in favour of version III in his paper of November of the same year. Each one was derived from a helix drawn on nested cylinders. Information supplied by Philip Stewart. Click each image for a larger image:

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1928

Janet's Three-Dimensional Spiral-Tube System

Janet's Three-Dimensional Spiral-Tube System of 1928 (from van Spronsen):

Click here for large diagram.

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1928

Riesenfeld Periodic Table

From here, using Google Translate:

This table is from the book "Practical Inorganic Chemistry" Publisher EH Riesenfeld Labor, Barcelona (1950). It is a reprint of the second edition (1943) which in turn is a translation of a German edition, its seventh edition in 1928. This suggests that Riesenfeld is himself the author of it.

It is a pre-Seaborg table in the sense that the actinides are known throughout the period July. It also does not include the Tc since it was discovered in 1937. These facts support the dating of the table. But the most interesting thing about it is that to make the separation between subgroups and major groups Be cut after the first period and after the Al in the second. Which leaves isolated in group B without any element 2b below it:

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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1930

Janet's Shell Filling Diagram

Janet produced six papers, in French, which are almost unobtainable as he had them privately printed and didn't distribute them properly. The shell-filling diagram dated from November 1930, six years before Madelung. Note that Janet uses Bohr's radial quantum number, k, which is l+1. In the text he formulates the n+k-1 rule. Information supplied by Philip Stewart.

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1930

Nekrasov Periodic Table

From here, using Google Translate:

The shape of the table is presented by Bohr effect of considering the properties of the elements as simple substances and for reactions to occur with the intervention of such substances. But for the study of compounds and reactions that occur between them, the key factor is the electron configurations of atoms in states of valence to them on the given compounds.

It follows that a more complete picture of the periodic table would be when you take into account the peculiarities of atoms in both its neutral state and in all its particular valence states. This is the proposal of Boris Nekrasov, a member of the Academy of Sciences in Moscow.

Nekrasov distinguishes three types of analogies between elements Total analogs are those in which the analogy is shown in all its valence, all analogs compared to the valence valences except for the group corresponding to the number that can be called characteristic and analogous to the valence characteristic .

Thus, in the table shown here distinguish the elements entirely analogous joined by continuous lines, such as Na and K.

Those analogies in all except the characteristic valences joined by dotted lines. This is the case of Na and Cu in both cases if you lose an electron (valence feature) your setup is different. In the first case is 8 (1s2, 2P6) and the second 18 (3s2, 3p6, 3d10).

Lastly presenting exclusively analogies carcetrística valence are connected with dashed lines. This is the case both S and Cr +6 elements have their valence electron configuration similar in the last layer 8 (2s2, 2p6) for the S and 8 (3s2, 3p6) for Cr.

The date 1930 is an educated guess:

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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1930

Gardner & Mazzucchelli's Periodic System Elaborated as Electronic Configuration

From Edward G. Mazurs' 1974 (2nd edition) Graphic Representations of the Periodic System During One Hundred Years, University of Alabama Press:

Gardner & Mazzucchelli

Thanks to Philip Stewart for the tip!

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1932

Stareck's Natural Periodic System

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1933

Quam's Periodic Chart

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1933

Rixon's Diagram of the Periodic Table

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1933

Clark's Periodic Arrangement of The Elements

Origionally developed in 1933:

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1933

After Crookes: The Periodic Law

The Crookes PT of 1898, here, has been adapted with the addition of two elements 'Adyarium' and 'Occultium' between hydrogen and helium, as presented to Theosophical Society (see bottom right hand corner).

Looking into this, we found the following:

INTRODUCTION TO THE THIRD EDITION By C. JINARAJADASA

This work contains a record of clairvoyant investigations into the structure of matter. The observations were carried out at intervals over a period of nearly forty years, the first in August 1895 and the last in October 1933. The two investigators, Annie Besant (1847­1933) and C. W. Leadbeater (1847­1934) were trained clairvoyants and well equipped to check and supplement each other's work.

Method of Investigation: The method is unique and difficult to explain. Many have heard of the word "clairvoyance" (clear-seeing), connoting the cognition of sights and sounds not perceived by ordinary people. In India the term Yoga is sometimes related to faculties that are beyond ordinary cognition. It is stated in Indian Yoga that one who has trained himself "can make himself infinitesimally small at will". This does not mean that he undergoes a diminution in bodily size, but only that, relatively, his conception of himself can be so minimized that objects which normally are small appear to him as large. The two investigators had been trained by their Eastern Gurus or Teachers to exercise this unique faculty of Yoga, so that when they observed a chemical atom it appeared to their vision as highly magnified.:

after Crookes

Thanks to Roy Alexander for the tip!

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1934

Brazilian Version of The Hubbard Periodic Chart Of The Atoms

A Brazilian Version of the American classic Henry Hubbard Periodic Chart Of The Atoms from a lecture theater in Rio, rediscovered by Martyn Poliakoff of PeriodicVideos.com and The University of Nottingham. From the early 1930s:

  • Ma – Masurium (43) Disputed claim to discovery of technetium.
  • Cb – Columbium (41) Former name of niobium
  • Ab – Alabamine (85) Discredited claim to discovery of astatine.
  • Il – Illinium (61) Discredited also
  • Sa – Samarium (62) Current symbol is Sm
  • Sp – Spectrium (70) Suggested name for ytterbium
  • Cb – Columbium (41) Former name of niobium (also called Pelopium)

 

The current Sargent Welch version of the Henry Hubbard Periodic Table:

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1934

Romanoff's System

Romanoff's System of 1934 (from van Spronsen):

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1934

Leningrad Monument To The Periodic Table

Leningrad monument to the periodic table, located near to the main chamber of weights and measures, 1934 (from van Spronsen):

From Wikipedia:

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1934

White's Periodic Table

The periodic table of White shows the normal state electronic configurations, from H.E. White. Introduction to Atomic Spectra. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1934,
p. 85, Table 5.4..

Helium is clearly associated with H, and placed above Be in accord with the s2 electron configuration of the free atom.

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1935

Zmaczynski's Triangular Periodic Table

A Triangular Periodic Table by Emil Zmaczynski:

Zmaczynski's Triangular Periodic Table

Zmaczynski's Triangular Periodic Table

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1936

Orbital Filling With Electrons

Students of chemistry are often confused why the orbitals fill with electrons: 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d10, 4p6... etc., because the 3d10 seems to be 'out of sequence'.

This 'out of sequence' difficulity is nicely explained if the orbitals are arranged in a slightly different way:

The aufbau principle states that in the ground state of an atom or ion, electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. For example, the 1s shell is filled before the 2s subshell is occupied. In this way, the electrons of an atom or ion form the most stable electron configuration possible.

The order in which these orbitals are filled is given by the n + rule, also known as the Madelung rule (after Erwin Madelung), the Janet rule or the diagonal rule.

Orbitals with a lower n + value are filled before those with higher n + values. In this context, n represents the principal quantum number and ? the azimuthal quantum number. The values = 0, 1, 2, 3 correspond to the s, p, d and f orbital lables.

Julio Gutiérrez Samanez writes:

"I send you the diagram below that reconciles quantum mechanics (diagram for filling the electronic cells) with the Janet table or LSPT. Explaining the duplication of periods with the duplication of the quantum number n, and the introduction of Tao (T) spin of the level or spin of the period, which explains the parity of the symmetric periods."

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1936

Libedinski's Periodic Classification of The Elements

Simón Libedinski: PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF THE ELEMENTS, from his book: Dialectical Materialism, in Nature, in Society and in Medicine, Ediciones Ercilla, Santiago de Chile, 1938, pp 56-57:

"Mendeleev's Table, like that of Werner and others, are not, however, more than flat projections of the actual ordering of the elements. There is as much difference between Mendeleev's Table and the real group as there is between the planisphere and a rotating globe. A rational representation, starting from the simplest element – the negative electron –, would be a spiral line that, surrounding said central point, first gave a small turn, touching only two bodies: hydrogen and helium. From here it would jump to a much larger orbit, in which it would touch eight bodies and then another equal, also of eight. From here, another jump to a much larger orbit, comprising eighteen bodies, and then another equal; from this point one jumps to another orbit, again augmented, comprising thirty-two bodies (including rare earths); and when this round is over, the last one begins, to vanish a short distance.

"In the dialectical grouping of the elements, which I have the satisfaction of exposing, the classic arrangement of the same is respected. Only the arrangement changes, which instead of being rectilinear, is spiral. So I managed to suppress the anomaly of the double columns, and comfortably incorporate the important group of rare earths. I can not give my graphic the name of Tabla, because it is just the opposite: it aims to give the idea of ??space, and of movement in space. The double columns of the Classic Table can be found here as well, but only if you look through the whole, considered as a planetary system of conical shape, with the electron at the vertex. Effectively: column 1 coincides, through space, with column 1a; column 4 with column 4 bis, etc. The dialectical grouping also allows us to easily appreciate the remarkable dialectical character of the properties of matter: these properties are repeated periodically. These are the "returns" to qualities or previous properties, but not exactly equal to those, but only similar: and this resemblance, only to a certain extent. The difference is that that quality, those properties or some characteristic, are exalted to each dialectical return."

Contributed by Julio Antonio Gutiérrez Samanez, Cusco, Peru, March 2018 (using Google Translation)

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1937

Pozzi Spiral Periodic Table

A spiral periodic table formulation constructed by E.C. Pozzi in 1937, from here.

Note the "Strong Positive, Strong Negative, Weak Positive and Weak Negative" corners:

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1937

Zmaczynski's Fan-Shaped System

Zmaczynski's fan-shaped system of 1937 (from van Spronsen):

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1937

Discovery of Technetium

Tc

Technetium, atomic number 43, has a mass of 98 au.

Radioactive element: Tc is only found in tiny amounts in nature. Most samples are synthetic.

Technetium was first isolated in 1937 by C. Perrier and E. Segrè. The element had been predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as eka-manganese.

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1939

Irwin's Periodic Table

From his paper, Periodicity Patterns of The Elements in J. Chem. Educ., 1939, 16 (7), p 335, K. Gordon Irwin presents a Periodic Chart of the Elements in Spiral Form. The paper is used to justify this formulation in terms of periodicity:

Kabbalistic

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1939

Discovery of Francium

Fr

Francium, atomic number 87, has a mass of 223 au.

Radioactive element.

Francium was first observed in 1939 by M. Perey.

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1940

Discovery of Astatine

At

Astatine, atomic number 85, has a mass of 210 au.

Radioactive element.

Astatine was first observed or predicted in 1940 by R. Corson, R. MacKenzie and E. Segrè.

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1940

Discovery of Neptunium

Np

Neptunium, atomic number 93, has a mass of 237 au.

Radioactive element: Np is only found in tiny amounts in nature. Most samples are synthetic.

Neptunium was first observed in 1940 by E.M. McMillan and H. Abelson.

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1940

Discovery of Plutonium

Pu

Plutonium, atomic number 94, has a mass of 244 au.

Radioactive element: Pu is only found in tiny amounts in nature. Most samples are synthetic.

Plutonium was first observed in 1940 by Glenn T. Seaborg, Arthur C. Wahl, W. Kennedy and E.M. McMillan.

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1942

Paneth's Table

Published by Paneth in 1942 in an article in Nature in which he suggests that newly discovered elements such as Z = 43 should be given names by their discoverers. The other highlighted elements (below) had also not yet been named.

Element 43 had been discovered 9 years earlier but had not been given an official name because there was reluctance to consider synthetic elements on the same footing as naturally occurring ones. This changed as a result of Paneth's article.

For more information see Eric Scerri's, A Tale of Seven Elements, OUP, 2013.

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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1942

Barber & Taylor Periodic Table

The periodic table that appears on the inside of the front cover of: Barber, H.H., Taylor, T.I. Semimicro Qualitative Analysis, Harper, 1942. Click here for a larger version.

Conal Boyce writes:

"This is actually the Gardner/Mazzucchelli 1930 formulation, a colored version can be found here in the database. The periodic table below is found on the inside cover of Barber & Taylor's Semimicro Qualitative Analysis (1953[1942]), it is printed without attribution or source. Thanks to Philip Stewart for identifying the source.":

Thanks to Conal for the tip!

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1943

Finke's Spatial System

Finke's spatial system of 1943 (from van Spronsen):

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1943

Luder's Electron Conguration Periodic Table

W.F. Luder's Electron Configuration as The Basis of the Periodic Table, J. Chem. Educ., 1943, 20, 21–26:

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1944

Müller's Tree System

In 1944 Müller produced a formulation based on Darwin's tree of life (from van Spronsen):

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1944

Seaborg's Periodic Table of 1944

From his Priestly Medal Address, The Periodic Table: Tortuous Path to Man-Made Elements printed in C&EN April 16, 1979 and reprinted in Modern Alchemy: Selected Papers of Glenn T. Seaborg (1994), page 181.

Seaborg describes how the extension of the PT – caused the discovery of the transuranic elements, plutonium and neptunium – resulted in a new "uranide" group:

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1944

Discovery of Americium

Am

Americium, atomic number 95, has a mass of 243 au.

Synthetic radioactive element. It is used in smoke detectors, and so – surprisingly – is present most houses and buildings.

Americium was first observed in 1944 by G. T. Seaborg, R. A. James, O. Morgan and A. Ghiorso.

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1944

Discovery of Curium

Cm

Curium, atomic number 96, has a mass of 247 au.

Synthetic radioactive element.

Curium was first observed in 1944 by G. T. Seaborg, R. A. James and A. Ghiorso.

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1945

Segré Chart of Elements & Isotopes

The Segré chart of elements and isotopes arranges atomic nuclei by numbers or protons and numbers of neutrons and is a table of nuclides. There are various ways the axes can be arranged. From elsewhere in this chemogenesis web book:

And from Wikipedia:

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1945

Seaborg's Periodic Table of 1945

From his Priestly Medal Address, The Periodic Table: Tortuous Path to Man-Made Elements printed in C&EN April 16, 1979 and reprinted in Modern Alchemy: Selected Papers of Glenn T. Seaborg (1994), page 181.

Seaborg describes how "the theory was advanced that [the] new elements heavier than than actinium might constitute a second series similar to the series of 'rare-earth' or 'lanthanide' elements":

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1945

Krafft's Periodic Table (1945)

From Ether and Matter, p. 86, Carl Frederick Krafft:

Thanks to Edmond Maurice Peyroux for the tip!

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1945

Discovery of Promethium

Pm

Promethium, atomic number 61, has a mass of 145 au.

Radioactive element: Pm is only found in tiny amounts in nature. Most samples are synthetic.

Promethium was first observed or predicted in 1942 by S. Wu, E.G. Segrè and H. Bethe and first isolated in 1945 by Charles D. Coryell, Jacob A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin, and Harold G. Richter.

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1946

Achimof's System

Van Spronsen, on p. 157, says:

"Achimov's system took the form of a cross-section of a pyramid. He based his system on the principle that the lengths of the periods and the analogies in properties between the elements of these periods must be clearly demonstrated."

Achimov EI 1946 Zhur. Obshchei Khim., vol. 16, p. 961

Thanks to René for the tip!

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1947

Steadman's Design

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1947

Stedman's Conic System

Stedman's conic system of 1947 (from van Spronsen):

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1948

Gamow [First] Ribbon Periodic Table

George Gamow is well known for his Gamow 1961 ribbon formulation, but this actually first appeared in a 1948 book: One, Two, Three... Infinity.

Conal Boyce writes:

"The 1961 version looks like something Gamow redrew from scratch, adding about a dozen new items as he went (also an extra loop), but also introducing some 4 or 5 goofy errors: the non-existent Fa for Ga, the misplaced Ba where Sr belongs, etc. In comparison, the 1948 version lacks those dozen updates but is free of the goofy typo type errors that crept into the 1961 version. Also, the 1948 version has the distinction of being "it" so to speak, as the moment when the Gamow scheme first appeared on the scene, to be reprinted in a 1953 paperback, which is where I first saw it, in 1953.":

Thanks to Conal for the tip!

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1949

Pauling's Formulation

Linus Pauling borrowed von Antropoff 1926 design, without acknowledgement, for his 1949 book, General Chemistry (and subsequently in later editions of The Chemical Bond).

The periodic table below is scanned in from Pauling's The Nature of The Chemical Bond, 3rd ed., 1960:

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1949

Clark's Periodic Arrangement of The Elements

Origionally developed in 1933, the colour version of Clark's arrangement is from Life Magazine, May 1949. This was the model for Longman's 1951 mural. Information supplied by Philip Stewart.

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1949

Wringley's Lamina System

Wringley's lamina system of 1949 (from van Spronsen):

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1949

Antropoff's Representation of the Periodic System Revised by Fritz Scheele

Andreas von Antropoff's 1926 representation of the Periodic System, revised by Fritz Scheele in 1949, to include the lanthanides and actinides.

The table was reconstituted, using von Antropoff s colour scheme, by P J Stewart, November 2007:

Antropoff Scheele

Thanks to Philip Stewart for the tip!

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1949

Discovery of Berkelium

Bk

Berkelium, atomic number 97, has a mass of 247 au.

Synthetic radioactive element.

Berkelium was first observed in 1949 by G. Thompson, A. Ghiorso and G. T. Seaborg.

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1949

Riggli's Volumetric Model of the Periodic Table

From the Russian Book "100 Years of Periodic Law of Chemical Elements", Nauka 1969, p.87.

The caption says: "Volumetric Model of 18-period Long System of D.I.Mendeleev." after Riggli (1949).

Thanks to Larry T for the tip!

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© Mark R. Leach 1999-


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