|1934||Quam & Quam's Graphical Representations of The Elements|
|1963||Galaxy of Elements [Discovered] by Swedish Scientists|
|1969||van Spronsen's The Periodic System of Chemical Elements: A History of the First Hundred Years|
|1974||Mazurs' Graphical Representations of The Periodic System During 100 Years|
|1975||Primo Levi's Elements|
|1996||Elements & Atoms: Case Studies in the Development of Chemistry|
|1996||Concept of Chemical Periodicity|
|1996||Seaborg's Evolution of the Modern Periodic Table|
|1999||Trapp's Development of the Periodic Chart|
|2004||Rouvray & King's The Periodic Table: Into the 21st Century|
|2004||van der Krogt's Elementymology & Elements Multidict|
|2006||Bent's Exploration into Janet's Left-Step Formulation|
|2006||Scerri's The Periodic Table & Its Significance|
|2008||Radio Show "The Music of Matter"|
|2008||Chemistry In Its Element|
|2008||Braille Guidebook Interactive Periodic Table Study Set|
|2008||Mathematical Formulas Describing the Sequences of the Periodic Table|
|2009||Selected Papers on The Periodic Table by Eric Scerri|
|2009||Gray's The Elements|
|2009||Graphic Representations of the Periodic System|
|2010||Periodic Table Videos: Before & After Mendeleev|
|2010||Rare Earths in the Periodic Table|
|2011||Curious Lives of the Elements: Periodic Tales|
|2011||Dufour's Periodic Tree: Two Short Films|
|2011||Scerri's Very Short Introduction To The Periodic Table|
|2012||A Tale of 7 Elements|
|2012||Books on the Chemical Elements and the Periodic Table/System|
|2012||Scerri's Lecture on The Periodic Table|
|2012||Wonderful Life with the Elements|
|2012||Scientific American: The Quest for the Periodic Table|
|2013||Electronegativity Chart (Leach)|
|2013||30 Second Elements|
|2013||From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement|
|2013||Top 10 Periodic Tables|
|2014||Rogue Elements: What's Wrong with the Periodic Table|
|2015||Elements: A Series of Business Radio Programs/Podcasts|
|2015||Sacks' Table of Elements|
|2015||Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements|
|2017||Habashi Book: The Periodic Table & Mendeleev|
|2018||Timelines, of The Periodic Table|
|2018||Race to Invent the Periodic Table|
|2018||Alphabet of Chemistry|
|2018||Mendeleev to Oganesson: A Multidisciplinary Perspective on the Periodic Table|
Quam & Quam's Graphical Representations of The Elements
- Mendeléeff's Table (their spelling, 1872)
- Brauner's Table (1902)
- Rydberg Table (1913)
- Periodic Chart by Quam (1934)
- Rang's Periodic Table (1893)
- Werner's Periodic Table (1905)
- Courtines' Periodic Classification (1925)
- Bayley's Periodic System (1882)
- Adam's Periodic Chart (1911)
- Margary's Periodic Table (1921)
- Stareck's Natural Periodic System (1932)
- Baumhauer's Spiral (1870)
- Erdmann's Spiral Table (1902)
- Nodder's Periodic Table (1920)
- Partington's Periodic Arrangements of the Elements (1920)
- Janet's Helicodial Classification (1929)
- The Telluric Screw (1863)
- Crookes' Periodic Table model (1898)
- Emerson's Helix (1911)
- Periodic Table by Harkins and Hall (1916)
- Schaltenbrand's Periodic Table (1920)
- Rixon's Diagram of the Periodic Table (1933)
- Spring's Diagram (1881)
- Flavitzky's Arrangement (1887)
- Stephenson's Statistical Periodic Table (1929)
- Friend's Periodic System (1927)
- Many others, including: Vogel (1918), Stintzing (1916) and Caswell (1929) are discribed without the benefit diagrams.
Galaxy of Elements [Discovered] by Swedish Scientists
Uploaded by request of Fathi Habashi, an historical video on elements discovered by Swedish scientists.
The film is in the Swedish film database, where it is named: Atomernas vintergata and is dated 1963:
J. W. van Spronsen, The Periodic System of Chemical Elements: A History of the First Hundred Years, Elsevier 1969
This book gives a good review and discussion of periodic table formulations. Anybody who is seriously interested in periodic table formulations will want to see/read/own this book.
Mazurs' Graphical Representations of The Periodic System During 100 Years
Edward Mazurs, Graphical Representations of The Periodic System During 100 Years, University of Alabama Press, 1974.
This book gives a very full analysis and classification of periodic table formulations. Most of the formulations are redrawn.
However, anybody who is seriously interested in periodic table formulations will want to see/read/own this book. Read more about Mazrus on the Elements Unearthed blog.
Mazurs' Valence Periodic Table (1974, p.94)
Mazurs' Periodic Table (1974, p. 95)
Mazurs' 1955 Formulation (1974, p. 44)
Mazurs' 1958-73 Formulation (1974, endpaper)
Mazurs' 1965 Formulation (1974, p/ 134)
Mazurs' 1967 Formulation (1974. Inside front cover)
Mazurs' other 1967 Formulation (1974, p. 126)
Mazurs' another 1967 Formulation (1974, p. 134)
Mazurs' Periodic System of Chemical Elements (1974, end foldout)
Mazurs' Version of Janet's "Lemniscate" Formulation (1974, p.80)
Marzus' Wooden Version of Mendeleev's Periodic Table (Chem. Heritage Foundn.)
Mazurs' PT Formulation Analysis (1974, pp.15-16)
Many thanks to Philip Stewart for preparing the links table above.
Primo Levi's Elements
Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed
Elements & Atoms: Case Studies in the Development of Chemistry
Carmen Giunta of Le Moyne College Department of Chemistry has collected many of the original papers plus commentary dealing with eighteenth and nineteenth century science in a web book called Elements and Atoms: Case Studies in the Development of Chemistry. This web resource is highly recommended:
Concept of Chemical Periodicity
Concept of Chemical Periodicity: from Mendeleev Table to Molecular Hyper-Periodicity Patterns E. V. Babaev and Ray Hefferlin
The paper "The Concepts of Periodicity and Hyper-Periodicity: from Atoms to Molecules" was published as a the book: Concepts in Chemistry: a Contemporary Challenge. (Ed. D.Rouvray). Research Studies Press, London, 1996, pp. 24-81.
The website, here, is the original text of this paper (copyright by the authors).
The text deals with periodicity in isotopes, atoms and materials.
Seaborg's Evolution of the Modern Periodic Table
By Glenn T. Seaborg, from J. Chem. SOC., Dalton Trans., 1996, Pages 3899-3907:
"In this review, the evolution of the Modern Periodic Table is traced beginning with the original version of Dimitri Mendeleev in 1869.Emphasis is placed on the upper end with a description of the revision to accommodate the actinide series of elements at the time of World War II and the more recent research on the observed and predicted chemical properties of the transactinide elements (beyond atomic number 103).A Modern Periodic Table includes undiscovered elements up to atomic number 118 and a Futuristic Periodic Table with additional undiscovered elements up to atomic number 168 is included."
Dave Trapp' Development of the Periodic Chart
Dave Trapp also has a web site dealing with the origin of the names of the elements:
Rouvray & King's The Periodic Table: Into the 21st Century
D. H Rouvray and R. B. King (ed.), The Periodic Table: Into the 21st Century, Research Studies Press 2004.
Peter van der Krogt's Elementymology & Elements Multidict
Peter van der Krogt's Elementymology & Elements Multidict, the web site for element names, origins (etymology) of element names and translations into other languages.
Henry Bent's Exploration into Janet's Left-Step Formulation
Henry Ben't detailed exploration into the Left-Step formulation of the periodic table is available as a book:
Eric Scerri, The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance, Oxford University Press, 2006. Read an interview with the author, here, and a review of the book here.
Periodic Table Radio Show "The Music of Matter"
Periodic Table Radio Show "The Music of Matter" featuring John Emsley, Oliver Sacks & Eric Scerri
Roy Alexander, inventor of the "Desk-Topper" 3-dimensional formulation has developed a rich periodic table resource.. available at Allperiodictables.com.
Chemistry In Its Element
Introducing Chemistry in its element, a tour of the periodic table.
A leading scientist or author tells the stories behind the elements in a five minute podcast.
Podcasts to Download:
The Elements Unearthed is a blog by David V Black concerning "Our Discovery and Usage of the Chemical Elements".
Braille Guidebook Interactive Periodic Table Study Set
Azer's Interactive Periodic Table Study Set is designed to make learning about the Periodic Table of the Elements accessible to students with visual impairments or blindness.
The tangible materials included with this study set complement APH's Periodic Table of the Elements Reference Chart and allow students to enhance their understanding of concepts consistent with the National Science Standards.
Inspired by Samir Azer, a science teacher at the Kentucky School for the Blind, this set can assist in the instruction and demonstration of concepts related to the arrangement of the periodic table, atomic structure, ionic and covalent bonding, and balancing of chemical equations to students who benefit from a hands-on, interactive model.
Special attention was given to make the materials tactually discriminable and visually appealing to the target population, yet appropriate for all students regardless of visual acuity:
Mathematical Formulas Describing the Sequences of the Periodic Table
Mathematical formulas describing all of the sequences of the chemical elements are derived from double tetrahedron face-centered cubic lattice model. More here.
J. Garai, Department of Earth Sciences, Florida International University. International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, Vol 108, 667–670 (2008):
Selected Papers on The Periodic Table by Eric Scerri
Edited by Eric Scerri (University of California, Los Angeles, USA)
Published by: Imperial College Press in London
The book contains key articles by Eric Scerri, the leading authority on the history and philosophy of the periodic table of the elements. These articles explore a range of topics such as the historical evolution of the periodic system as well as its philosophical status and its relationship to modern quantum physics. In this present volume, many of the more in-depth research papers, which formed the basis for this publication, are presented in their entirety; they have also been published in highly accessible science magazines (such as American Scientist), and journals in history and philosophy of science, as well as quantum chemistry. This must-have publication is completely unique as there is nothing of this form currently available on the market.
200pp (approx.) Pub. date: Scheduled Fall 2009
1-84816-425-4 US$88 / £66
The Elements by Theo Gray
As Theo (modestly... ) says:
"Much anticipated (by me at least), this is the definitive be-all, end-all book of the elements. Like my poster, it contains beautiful photographs of all the chemical elements, shining out from a deep black background. But unlike my poster, it's not limited to just one picture per element. Instead each element gets a whole 2-page spread. At 10" x 20" (25cm x 50cm), each spread is as large as the whole place mat version of my poster! And several of the more popular elements even get two spreads. There are literally hundreds and hundreds of photos in this book, nearly all of them taken by myself and my co-author Nick Mann of objects in my collection."
Read more here.
Graphic Representations of the Periodic System
Mary E. Saecker writes an article in Chemical Education Digital Library, Periodic Table Presentations and Inspirations: Graphic Representations of the Periodic System, that reviews some periodic table formunations.
The paper contains a link to this pdf file which gives templates and instructions for several print, cut-out & build periodic table formulations:
Supplement to: Periodic Table Presentations and Inspirations by Mary E. Saecker, J. Chem. Educ., 2009, 86, 1151.
Construction Directions A Cut-Out Chart of the Periodic System (Periodic Table Cylinder)
Periodic Table Videos: Before & After Mendeleev
Two videos by the Chemical Heritage Foundation: Part 1 Before Mendeleev and Part 2 Mendeleeve & Beyond.
The videos feature interviews with Dr. Eric Scerri of UCLA, with added narration, animations, illustrations, photos, captions, etc. by David V. Black as well as publication artwork and notes by Edward G. Mazurs. Part 1 covers the events leading up to Mendeleev’s invention of the periodic table including the work of several precursors such as de Chancourtois, Newlands, Odling, Hinrichs, and Meyer. The second part covers Mendeleev’s working out of his periodic system and the work of his successors, as well as some interesting questions such as whether the periodic table can be entirely deduced from quantum mechanics and the mystery of the Knight’s Move pattern of properties. Part 1 is 17 minutes long and Part 2 is just under 20 minutes.
"The Periodic Table is one of our crowning scientific achievements, but it’s also a treasure trove of passion, adventure, betrayal, and obsession. The fascinating tales in The Disappearing Spoon follow carbon, neon, silicon, gold, and every single element on the table as they play out their parts in human history, finance, mythology, conflict, the arts, medicine, and the lives of the (frequently) mad scientists who discovered them: Why did a little lithium help cure poet Robert Lowell of his madness? And how did Gallium (Ga, 31) become the go-to element for laboratory pranksters?"
"The Disappearing Spoon has the answers, fusing science with the classic lore of invention, investigation, discovery, and alchemy, from the Big Bang through the end of time."
Rare Earths in the Periodic Table
CRC Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Chapter 248. Accommodation of the Rare Earths in the Periodic Table: A Historical Analysis by Pieter Thyssen and Koen Binnemans (ISBN: 978-0-444-53590-0):
Curious Lives of the Elements: Periodic Tales
Periodic Tales: The Curious Lives of the Elements by Hugh Aldersey-Williams and published by Viking, ISBN: 9780670918119.
Everything is made of them, from the furthest reaches of the universe to this book that you hold in your hands, including you.
Like you, the elements have lives: personalities and attitudes, talents and shortcomings, stories rich with meaning. You may think of them as the inscrutable letters of the periodic table but you know them much better than you realise.
Welcome to a dazzling tour through history and literature, science and art. Here you'll meet iron that rains from the heavens and noble gases that light the way to vice. You'll learn how lead can tell your future while zinc may one day line your coffin. You'll discover what connects the bones in your body with the Whitehouse in Washington, the glow of a streetlamp with the salt on your dinner table.
From ancient civilisations to contemporary culture, from the oxygen of publicity to the phosphorus in your pee, the elements are near and far and all around us. Unlocking their astonishing secrets and colourful pasts, Periodic Tales will take you on a voyage of wonder and discovery, excitement and novelty, beauty and truth. Along the way, you'll find that their stories are our stories, and their lives are inextricable from our own.
Dufour's Periodic Tree: Two Short Films
A book by Eric Scerri, The Periodic Table: A Very Short Introduction.
ericscerri.com is the personal internet domain and website of Eric Scerri: chemist and leading philosopher of science specializing in the history and philosophy of the periodic table. He is founder and editor-in-chief of the international journal Foundations of Chemistry, which publishes academic papers concerned with the PT, and is the author of the respected book: The Periodic Table and Its Significance (Oxford University Press, 2007).
The website has links to all of Eric's extensive publications, including online video lectures and interviews and external links.
A Tale of 7 Elements
A new book by Eric Scerri: A Tale of 7 Elements about seven 'missing' elements: protactinium, hafnium, rhenium, technetium, francium, astatine, promethium:
Books on the Chemical Elements and the Periodic Table/System
From Eric Scerri's forthcoming book A Tale of Seven Elements (Oxford University Press, 2013) and used by permission of the author, is the most complete and up-to-date list of Books on the Chemical Elements and the Periodic Table/System, including some titles in foreign languages.
Additional books in other languages can be found listed in Mazurs, 1974
Works by D. I. Mendeleev
Eric Scerri's Lecture on The Periodic Table
A lecture by Eric Scerri at the Oscar Peterson auditorium of Concordia University, in Montreal.
The topic is the history and iconic nature of the Periodic Table, in high quality video, about one hour:
Wonderful Life with the Elements
In this super periodic table, every element is a unique character whose properties are represented visually: heavy elements are fat, man-made elements are robots, and noble gases sport impressive afros. Every detail is significant, from the length of an element's beard to the clothes on its back. You'll also learn about each element's discovery, its common uses, and other vital stats like whether it floats—or explodes—in water.
There is also a full review with more images from Wired.
Scientific American: The Quest for the Periodic Table
From Scientific American, a series of original articles (scanned) dealing with the development of the periodic table dating from 1861 to 1998.
Edited by Eric Scerri.
Electronegativity Chart (Leach)
Due to the importance of Pauling's electronegativity scale, as published in The Nature of The Chemical Bond (1960), where electronegativity ranges from Cs 0.7 to F 4.0, all the other electronegativity scales are routinely normalised with respect to Pauling's range.
When the Pauling, Revised Pauling, Mulliken, Sanderson and Allred-Rochow electronegativity scales are plotted together against atomic number, Z, the similarity of the data can be observed. The solid line shows the averaged data:
30 Second Elements
"30 Second Elements presents you with the foundations of chemical knowledge, distilling the 50 most significant chemical elements into half-a-minute individual entries, using nothing more than two pages, 300 words and one picture. Divided into seven chapters, it includes the atomic details of the other 68 elements and the relationships of all 118, as well as biographies of the chemists who transformed scientific knowledge and unlocked the mysteries of life itself. Illustrated with explosive graphics, here is the quickest way to know your arsenic from your europium".
The curator of this website is a contributor:
From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement
A paper in J.Chem. Ed.: From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement
Emili Besalú, Departament de Química i Institut de Química Computacional i Catàlisis, Universitat de Girona, C/Maria Aurèlia Capmany, 69, 17071 Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
J. Chem. Educ., 2013, 90 (8), pp 1009–1013 DOI: 10.1021/ed3004534 Publication Date (Web)
"A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification. From the information given, the whole procedure can be reproduced by any interested reader having a basic background in statistics and with the help of the supplementary material provided. Intermediate calculations are instructive because they quantify several concepts the students know only at a qualitative level. The final scores representation reveals an unexpected periodic table presenting some interesting features and points for discussion."
There are more than 600 periodic tables hosted by the Chemogenesis Webbook Periodic Table database, so it can be a little difficult to find the exceptional ones.
Here we present – in our humble opinion – The ten most significant periodic tables in the database.
We present the best:
The first three of our top 10 periodic tables are classic element data repositories.
They all work in the same way: click on the element symbol to get data/information about the selected element. The three are Mark Winter's WebElements, Theo Gray's Photographic Periodic Table & Michael Dayah's Ptable.
The next five examples deal with history and development Periodic Table. The first is Dalton's 1808 list of elements, next is Mendeleev's 1869 Tabelle I, then Werner's remarkably modern looking 1905 formulation. This is followed by Janet's Left Step formulation and then a discussion of how and why the commonly used medium form PT formulation, is constructed.
The internet database contains many, many alternative formulations, and these are often spiral and/or three dimensional. These exemplified by the 1965 Alexander DeskTopper Arrangement. To see the variety of formulations available, check out the Spiral & Helical and 3-Dimensional formulations in the database:
The periodic table as a motif is a useful and commonly used infographic template for arranging many types of object with, from 50 to 150 members.
There are numerous examples in the Non-Chemistry section where dozens of completely random representations can be found:
Rogue Elements: What's Wrong with the Periodic Table
An article in New Scientist by Celeste Biever (news editor at Nature), Image by Martin Reznik
Weights gone awry, elements changing position, the ructions of relativity – chemistry's iconic chart is far from stable, and no one knows where it will end
IF IMITATION is the sincerest form of flattery, the periodic table has many true admirers. Typefaces, types of meat and even the Muppets have been ordered in its image. For chemists, knowing an element's position in the periodic table, and the company it keeps, is still the most reliable indicator of its properties – and a precious guide in the search for new substances. "It rivals Darwin's Origin of Species in terms of the impact of bringing order out of chaos," says Peter Edwards of the University of Oxford.
The origins of the periodic table lie in the 19th century, when chemists noticed that patterns began to emerge among the known chemical elements when they... click here to continue:
Elements: A Series of Business Radio Programs/Podcasts
A series of BBC World Service Radio Programs, available as MP3 Podcasts, talking about the chemical elements with a strong business/technology bias, rather than the more usual chemical or historical approach:
Thanks to Marcus Lynch for the tip!
Oliver Sacks' Table of Elements
From Radiolab (a podcast):
"As a young boy, neurologist, author and Radiolab favorite Oliver Sacks pored over the pages of the Handbook of Physics and Chemistry, fantasizing about the day that he, like the shy gas Xenon, would find a companion with whom to connect and share. That companion turned out to be the Periodic Table of the Elements itself, a relationship he's never outgrown. He introduces us to the elements that he's known and loved."
Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements
The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements is a multimedia project about one of the great adventures in the history of science: the long (and continuing) quest to understand what the world is made of – to identify, understand and organize the basic building blocks of matter. In a nutshell, the project is about the human story behind the Periodic Table of the Elements.
The centerpiece of the project is a three-hour series that premieres Aug. 19, 2015 on PBS. The Mystery of Matter introduces viewers to some of history’s most extraordinary scientists:
The Mystery of Matter will show not only what these scientific explorers discovered but also how, using actors to reveal the creative process through the scientists’ own words, and conveying their landmark discoveries through re-enactments shot with replicas of their original lab equipment. Knitting these strands together into a coherent, compelling whole is host Michael Emerson, a two-time Emmy Award-winning actor best known for his roles on Lost and Person of Interest. Eric Scerri appears as the expert.
Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed
Habashi Book: The Periodic Table & Mendeleev
By Fathi Habashi, a small book:
Timelines, of The Periodic Table
By Steven Murov, a chronology of the events that have resulted in our present periodic table of the elements and a celebration of the 150th anniversary of the Mendeleev (birthday, 02/08/1834) periodic table (1869).
Race to Invent the Periodic Table
From PBS Digital Studios, a short-but-fast-moving video about the development of the periodic table during the 19th century, and a discussion about gallium:
Alphabet of Chemistry
A BBC World Service radio program, first broadcast Tue 23 Jan 2018.
The Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev attempted nothing less than to pull apart the fabric of reality and expose the hidden patterns that lie beneath everything in existence, from shoes and ships and sealing wax to cabbages and kings. The result was something known to almost everyone who has ever been to school: the Periodic Table of the elements. But why this particular arrangement? And why is it still the foundation of chemistry?
The presenter Quentin Cooper is joined by:
Mendeleev to Oganesson: A Multidisciplinary Perspective on the Periodic Table
Since 1969, the international chemistry community has only held conferences on the topic of the Periodic Table three times, and the 2012 conference in Cusco, Peru was the first in almost a decade. The conference was highly interdisciplinary, featuring papers on geology, physics, mathematical and theoretical chemistry, the history and philosophy of chemistry, and chemical education, from the most reputable Periodic Table scholars across the world. Eric Scerri and Guillermo Restrepo have collected fifteen of the strongest papers presented at this conference, from the most notable Periodic Table scholars. The collected volume will contain pieces on chemistry, philosophy of science, applied mathematics, and science education.
Eric Scerri is a leading philosopher of science specializing in the history and philosophy of chemistry and especially the periodic table. He is the author of numerous OUP books including A Tale of Seven Scientists and a New Philosophy of Science (2016) and The Periodic Table: A Very Short Introduction (2012). Scerri has been a full-time lecturer at UCLA for the past eighteen years where he regularly teaches classes in history and philosophy of science.
Guillermo Restrepo is a chemist specializing in mathematical and philosophy of chemistry with more than sixty scientific papers and book chapters on these and related areas. Restrepo was a professor of chemistry at the Universidad de Pamplona (Colombia) between 2004 and 2017, and since 2014 has been in Germany as an Alexander von Humboldt Fellow at Leipzig University and more recently as researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences.
1. Heavy, Superheavy...Quo Vadis?
2. Nuclear Lattice Model and the Electronic Configuration of the Chemical Elements
3. Amateurs and Professionals in Chemistry: The Case of the Periodic System
4. The Periodic System: A Mathematical Approach
5. The "Chemical Mechanics" of the Periodic Table
6. The Grand Periodic Function
7. What Elements Belong in Group 3 of the Periodic Table?
8. The Periodic Table Retrieved from Density Functional Theory Based Concepts: The Electron Density, the Shape Function and the Linear Response Function
9. Resemioticization of Periodicity: A Social Semiotic Perspective
10. Organizing the Transition Metals
11. The Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions: A New Periodic Table Founded on Non-Traditional Concepts
12. The Origin of Mendeleev's Discovery of the Periodic System
13. Richard Abegg and the Periodic Table
14. The Chemist as Philosopher: D. I. Mendeleev's "The Unit" and "Worldview"
15. The Philosophical Importance of the Periodic Table
|Periodic Table, What is it showing?||
© Mark R. Leach 1999-
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