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2019 has been designated the International Year of the Periodic Table as it is the 150th Anniversary of the formulation of Mendeleev's Tabelle I

Internet Database of Periodic Tables


There are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but there is only one comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Dr Mark R Leach.

Use the buttons below to select from the 1000+ Periodic Tables in the database:

 pre 1900 formulations  1900 to 1949 formulations  1950 to 1999 formulations  2000 to 2009 formulations    Spiral formulations  3 dimensional formulations
 Data mapping periodic tables  Miscellaneous periodic tables  Books and reviews  non-chemistry periodic tables      All periodic tables

Or, select:     Search by Year:      Text search:



The 8 Periodic Tables most recently added to the database:

1920     Stewart's Arrangement of The Elements
1937     Geochemical Periodic Table (Goldschmidt Classification)
2019     Medicines, Periodic Table of
1946     Yost & Russell's Periodic System
2019     Toma's Periodic Tables
1920     Black & Conant's Periodic Classification Of The Elements
2019     Alexander Arrangement Unwrapped... and Rewrapped
2019     C&EN No Agreement


1920

Stewart's Arrangement of The Elements

From A.W. Stewart, Recent Advances in Physical and Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd ed., Longmans, Green and Co., London (1920) 

René Vernon writes:

"Stewart discusses the 'forced symmetry' of Mendeleev's table, and the distinction between 'facetious symmetry' (as he calls it) and the actual correlation of facts (as he saw them at that time)."

Extracts:

237. Mendeleev... objected strongly to the employment of graphic methods of expressing the Periodic Law, on the ground that such methods did not indicate the existence of a limited and definite number of elements in each period.

239. The Periodic Table, as laid down by Mendeleeff in his writings, exhibits a symmetry which was one of its greatest assets. For some psychological reason, symmetry has an attraction for the human mind; and we are always apt to prefer a regular arrangement to one in which irregularities pre- dominate. Psychological peculiarities are, however, undesirable guides in the search for truth; and a careful examination of the Table in the light of our present knowledge will suffice to show that it can boast of no such symmetry as we are led to expect from the text-books of our student days.

For example, owing to the omission of some of the rare earth elements and by the insertion of blanks, the Table in its original form attained a very high degree of regularity; but since there are, as we know from the X-ray spectra results, only sixteen elements to fill the eighteen vacant spaces in the Table, it is evident that the symmetry of Mendeleeff s system is purely factitious.

Further, in order to produce the appearance of symmetry, Mendeleeff was forced to place copper, silver, and gold in the first group, although there is no known oxide Au2O and the stable chloride of gold is AuCl3.

These examples are well-known, and are mentioned here only for the purpose of enforcing the statement that the symmetry of Mendeleef's system cannot be sustained at the present day. Fascinating though its cut-and-dried regularity may be, we cannot afford to let symmetry dominate our minds when in actual fact there is no symmetry to be found.

240. The most superficial examination shows that, instead of being a symmetrical whole, the Table is really pieced together from a series of discrete sections.

250. The first attempt to arrange all the elements in a periodic grouping took the form of a three-dimensional model the Telluric Helix of de Chancourtois and it is not surprising that from time to time attempts have been made to utilize the third dimension as an aid to classification. It cannot be said that much light has been thrown on the matter by these essays; but some account of them must be given here for the sake of completeness.

251. The main drawback to the spiral representation appears to be that in it no new facts are brought to light, and there is no fresh collocation of the allied elements which might give it an advantage over the ordinary forms of classification. Also, in most cases it is more difficult to grasp as a whole.

253 ...if we have to choose between factitious symmetry and actual correlation of facts, we must decide in favour of the latter, discomforting though the choice may be.

255. The following new grouping seems worth considering. Although it has many good points, it is not to be regarded as a final solution, but is put forward mainly in the hope that an examination of it may suggest some more perfect system.

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1937

Geochemical Periodic Table (Goldschmidt Classification)

From Wikipedia: The Goldschmidt Classification is a gechemical periodic table which groups the chemical elements within the Earth according to their preferred host phases into:

  • lithophile (rock-loving)
  • siderophile (iron-loving)
  • chalcophile (ore-loving or chalcogen-loving)
  • atmophile (gas-loving)
  • volatile (the element, or a compound in which it occurs, is liquid or gaseous at ambient surface conditions).

Some elements have affinities to more than one phase. The main affinity is given in the table below and a discussion of each group follows that table.

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2019

Medicines, Periodic Table of

From C. Van Cleave 1 and D. C. Crans, The First-Row Transition Metals in the Periodic Table of Medicine, Inorganics 2019, 7, 111 (Inorganics 2019, 7, 111; doi:10.3390/inorganics7090111, www.mdpi.com/journal/inorganics).

From the paper, specifically the text associated with the figure:

The periodic table with known medicinal uses of each main group or transition metal element when available. In the following, we list the use of each element.

  • Hydrogen (H), boron (B), carbon (C), calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), vanadium (V), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), rubidium (Ru), molybdenum (Mo), and cesium (Cs) are commonly found in supplements readily available to the public and are illustrated as such. Helium (He) is crucial in the operation of MRI machines.
  • Lithium (Li) as lithium carbonate is the most common treatment of bipolar disorder.
  • Beryllium (Be) foil is used as shielding in radiographic instruments.
  • Nitrogen (N), as nitrous oxide, is a common anesthetic.
  • Oxygen (O) has many medical uses, including anesthetics and resuscitation, and is illustrated here for use in ventilation.
  • Fluorine (F) and tin (Sn) as stannous fluoride are a common ingredient in toothpaste.
  • Sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) are used as NaCl in saline solutions.
  • Aluminum (Al) compounds are a common active ingredient in antiperspirant deodorants.
  • Silicon (Si) is used in antacid products.
  • Sulfur (S) is illustrated as campden tablets, which are used for sterilization in beer fermentation.
  • Argon (Ar) lasers are used in eye surgery.
  • Zirconium (Zr) is used in immuno-positron emission tomography (PET) imaging while scandium (Sc) is a candidate for the same technique.
  • Titanium (Ti), palladium (Pd), niobium (Nb), nickel (Ni), and tantalum (Ta) are used in medical implants.
  • Chromium (Cr) is shown as Cr(III) picolinate, which is a controversial supplement used in lowering insulin resistance.
  • Gallium (Ga), yttrium (Y), technetium (Tc), lanthanum (La), astatine (At), and actinium (Ac) are all used in nuclear medicine.
  • Arsenic (As), as As(III) trioxide, is used to treat certain forms of leukemia.
  • Bromine (Br) as KBr is an active ingredient in canine seizure medication.
  • Krypton (Kr) was used in lung ventilation studies but has since been phased out.
  • Strontium (Sr) is used in Sensodyne® toothpaste.
  • Rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), and rhenium (Re) complexes are used as anticancer agents.
  • Silver (Ag) is used in antibacterial ointments.
  • Indium (In) is used in white blood cell scans.
  • Antimony (Sb) is used in leishmania medicine.
  • Barium (Ba) is used in X-ray imaging of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Tungsten (W) is used in shielded syringes.
  • Iridium (Ir) is used in brachytherapy.
  • Gold (Au) was used as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis but has been phased out.
  • Mercury (Hg) is used in dental amalgams.
  • Lead (Pb) is used in X-ray aprons.
  • Bismuth (Bi) is used in stomach ulcer medicine.
  • Neon (Ne), germanium (Ge) cadmium (Cd), tellurium (Tl), hafnium (Hf), osmium (Os), polonium (Po), francium (Fr), radon (Rn), and radium (Ra) although most of these are toxic elements for human life, some of these elements are under development as potential agents for disease treatment but to our knowledge they are not currently used for beneficial applications in medicine.

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1946

Yost & Russell's Periodic System

From D.M. Yost & H. Russell, Systematic Inorganic Chemistry of the Fifth-and-Sixth-group Nonmetallic Elements, Prentice-Hall, 1946, New York, p. 406.

René Vernon writes:

"Features of this peculiar periodic system:

  • There are 11 main groups
  • Group 3 features B-Al, followed by Sc-Y-La-Ac
  • Group 4 bifurcates after C-Si into a Ti branch and a Ge branch; seemingly the Ti branch bifurcates after Zr into a Ce branch and a Hf branch
  • Group 8 is Fe-Ru-Os
  • Group 9 is Co-Rh-Ir
  • Group 10 is Ni-Pd-Pt
  • There are only 13 rare earths, running from Pr to Lu.

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2019

Toma's Periodic Tables

Henrique E. Toma writes:

"I will be delighted if I could have a chance to contribute for the fantastic moment expressed by 2019 IYPT.

"I am senior Professor of Chemistry at the University of São Paulo, and great Periodic Table enthusiast since the beginning of my career about 50 years ago. This interest actually came from my supervisor and mentor, Professor Henry Taube (Nobel Prize, 1983), who taught me the beauty of the elements."

"As an inorganic chemist, I have been collecting the elements and minerals for a long time, and I built up the Periodic Table with the real elements shown below. It is one of the attractions of the campus, and has been reported in many publications1. It was visited by colleagues from IUPAC, including the President. I wouldn't be surprised if it inspired IUPAC the similar Table exposed in Paris, this year. The difference is that our table is that it also places the typical minerals together with the elements, and I believe that this is very important aspect for teaching and discussing the history behind them:

"Next, is my personal version of the IUPAC Periodic Table, shown in Figure 2, with the isotopes distributed in a column right to the element symbol. This Table is very practical, and particularly useful when you are dealing with mass spectrometry or isotopes. It is in my book of Elements2.

"Another is the Periodic Table of the Elements for Life, with the essential elements and abundance expressed by colors, including those used in medicine. This Table will be changing with the progress of Bioinorganic Chemistry, and is in my book of Bioinorganic Chemistry3.

"Finally, I have adapted the periodic table of elemental sustainability, using the colors to call attention for this issue. In this form, it is can be more easily understood by the public. Elemental Sustainability is a very important issue, as discussed in Green Chemistry Journal4.

References:

  1. Toma, H. E. IYPT 2019 International Year of the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements. Quimica Nova 42, 468–472 (2019).
  2. Toma, H. Estrutura atômica, ligações e estereoquímica. (Edgard Blucher, 2018).
  3. Toma, H. Química bioinorganica e ambiental. (Edgard Blucher, 2015).
  4. Toma, H. Green Processing of Strategic Elements Based on Magnetic Nanohydrometallurgy. Green Chem. 29, 948–959 (2015).

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1920

Black & Conant's Periodic Classification Of The Elements

From N.H. Black NH & J.B. Conant's Practical Chemistry: Fundamental Facts and Applications to Modern Life, MacMillan, New York (1920)

Eric Scerri, who provided this formulation writes (personal communication):

"Notice conspicuous absence of H. And, Conant was the person who gave Kuhn his first start in the history of science at Harvard."

René Vernon tells us that Conant and his coauthor write:

"The position of H in the system has been a matter of some discussion, but it is not of much consequence. It seems to be rather an odd element. Perhaps the best place for it is in group IA as it forms a positive ion." (p. 350)

Thanks to Eric Scerri – who appears – for the tip! 
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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2019

Alexander Arrangement Unwrapped... and Rewrapped

In mid-2019 Roy Alexander – of the Alexander Arrangement – produced an intriguing new formulation in sketch form that shows the p, d & f blocks moving away from the s block in three dimensional space:

Roy has now expanded this into a full blown new formulation. (Click image to enlarge):

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2019

C&EN No Agreement

From C&EN: The periodic table is an icon. But chemists still can't agree on how to arrange it:

Thanks to Eric Scerri – who appears – for the tip! 
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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pre 1900 formulations 1900 to 1949 formulations 1950 to 1999 formulations 2000 to 2009 formulations Spiral formulations 3 dimensional formulations
Data mapping periodic tables Miscellaneous periodic tables Books and reviews non-chemistry periodic tables All periodic tables


Periodic Table, What is it showing?
Binary Compounds

© Mark R. Leach 1999-


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