Chemogenesis: The Literature References


This page gives the literature references and suggested background reading to the material covered in the chemogenesis web book.

The Top Ten Literature References

  • Ian Fleming, Frontier Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions, J.Wiley & Sons (1976).

A 250 page soft-back book which reviewed the emerging FMO ideas by setting them in context with numerous real examples. This book is a modern classic and is still available. For those readers familiar with the Fleming book, the chemogenesis story can be considered as an adjunct to chapter 3, Ionic Reactions, the only part of the Fleming book that is not logically complete.

  • Stephen G. Davies (series editor) Oxford Chemistry Primers, OUP. This build-your-own-book series is excellent:
  • 1 Susan E. Thomas, Organic Synthesis: The role of B and Si
  • 2 Laurence M. Harwood, Polar Rearrangements
  • 8 Moody & Whitham, Reactive Intermediates
  • 15 Mark J. Winter, Chemical Bonding
  • 35 G. Denis Meakins, Functional Groups
  • 38 Bailey & Morgan, Organonitrogen Chemistry
  • 39 Wayne & Wayne, Photochemistry
  • 40 Lawrence, Rodger & Compton, Foundations of Physical Chemistry
  • 51 N.C. Norman, Periodicity and the s- and p-Block Elements
  • 67 Ian Fleming, Pericyclic Reactions
  • 69 John R. Chipperfield, Non-aqueous Solvents
  • 90 John Saunders, Top Drugs and Synthetic Routes
  • 91 M. John Perkins, Radical Chemistry
  • March, J. Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanism and Structure 1-1328 (McGraw-Hill Kogakusha, Ltd, Toyko, 1977).
  • Pauling, L. The Nature of the Chemical Bond 1-644 (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1960).
  • Atkins, P.W. in Physical Chemistry(Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1986).
  • Jolly, W.L. Modern Inorganic Chemistry 1-610 (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1984).
  • Huheey, J.E. Inorganic Chemistry (Harper International SI Edition, Cambridge, ).
  • Laing, M. A Tetrahedron of Bonding. Education in Chemistry (1993).
  • Klopman, G. Chemical Reactivity and the Concept of Charge- and Frontier- Controlled Reactions. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 90, 223-234 (1968).
  • Pearson, R.G. Hard and Soft Acids and Bases. Journal of the American Chemical Society 85, 3533-3539 (1963).

Bonding

  • Allen, L.C. Extension and Completion of the Periodic Table. Journal of the American Chemical Society 114, 1510-1511 (1992).
  • Baird, N.C. The Chemical Bond Revisited. Journal of Chemical Education 63, 660-664 (1986).
  • Bernardi, F., Bottoni, A., Venturini, A. & Mangini, A. The Stabilisation of alpha-Substituted Oxy- and Thiocarbaniuons. Journal of The Americal Chemical Society 108, 8171-8175 (1986).
  • Constable, E.C. A New Challange to Valency. Nature 353, 600-601 (1991).
  • DeKock, R.L. The Chemical Bond. Journal of Chemical Education 64, 934-941 (1987).
  • Dunbar, R.C. The Influence of Electrons on Each Other in a Molecule: Correlation of Electron Motions in H2. Journal of Chemical Education 66, 463-466 (1989).
  • Hudson, G.K. and R.F. Klopmann Theoret. Chim. Acta. 8, 165 (1967).
  • Laing, M. A Tetrahedron of Bonding. Education in Chemistry (1993).
  • Lewis, G.N. The Atom and The Molecule. J.Am.Chem.Soc. 38, 762-764 (1916).
  • Lewis, G.N. Valence and Structure of Atoms and Molecules (The Chemical Catalogue Company, New York, 1923).
  • McWeeney, R. Back to the Valence Bond. Nature 323, 666-667 (1986).
  • Ogilvie, J.F. The Nature of the Chemical Bond–1990: There Are No Such Things as Orbitals. Journal of Chemical Education 67, 280-289 (1990).
  • Palke, W.E. Double Bonds Are Bent Equivalent Hybrid (Banana) Bonds. Journal of the American Chemical Society 108, 6543-6544 (1986).
  • Pross, A. & Shaik, S.S. A Qualitative Valence-Bond Approach to Organic Reactivity. Accounts of Chemical Research 16, 363-370 (1983).
  • Reed, J.L. The Lewis Structure: An Expanded Perspective. Journal of Chemical Education 71, 98-100 (1994).
  • Ritchie, J.P. & Bachrach, S.M. Bond Paths and Bond Properties of Carbon-Lithium Bonds. Journal of the American Chemical Society 109, 5909-5916 (1987).
  • Schmidt, M.W., Truong, P.N. & Gorgon, M.S. π-Bond Strengths in the Second and Third Periods. Journal of the Americal Chemical Society 109, 5217-5227 (1987).
  • Siddarth, P. & Gopinathan, M.S. Valence Correlation Diagrams. Journal of The Americal Chemical Society 110, 96-104 (1988).
  • Simons, J. There Are No Such Things as Orbitals–Act Two! Journal of Chemical Education 68, 131-132 (1991).
  • Slee, T.S. On the Correspondance between Simple Orbital Concepts and Molecular Electron Distributions. Journal of the American Chemical Society 108, 7541-7548 (1986).
  • Smith, D.W. Electronegativity in Two Dimensions. Journal of Chemical Education 67, 911-914 (1990).
  • Sproul, G.D. Electronegativity and Bond Type. Journal of Chemical Education 70, 531-534 (1993).
  • Winter, C.E. Stereoelectronic Effects, Tau Bonds, and Cram's Rule. Journal of Chemical Education 64, 587-590 (1987).
  • Karafiloglou, P. & Ohanessian, G. Understanding Molecular Orbital Wave Functions in Terms of Resonance Structures. Journal of Chemical Education 68, 583-586 (1991).
  • McKelvey, D.R. Relativistic Effects on Chemical Properties. Journal of Chemical Education 60, 112-116 (1983).


Brønsted Acids & Hydrogen Bonding

  • Barnes, A.J. & Wright, M.P. Strongly Hydrogen-bonded Molecular Complexes Studied by Matrix Isolation Vibrational Spectroscopy. Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 2 82, 153-164 (1986).
  • Bene, J.E.D., Frisch, M.J., Raghavachari, K. & Pople, J.A. Molecular Orbital Study of Some Protonated Bases. Journal of Physical Chemistry 86, 1529-1535 (1982).
  • Cybulski, S.M. & Scheiner, S. Hydrogen Bonding and Proton Transfer Involving Triply Bonded Atoms. Acetylene and HCCH and HCN. Journal of the Americal Chemical Society 109, 4199-4206 (1987).
  • Kollman, P. & Rothenberg, S. Theoretical Studies of Basicity. Proton Affinities of Some Simple Bases. Journal of the American Chemical Society 99, 1333-1342 (1977).
  • Larson, J.W. & McMahon, T.B. Hydrogen Bonding in Gas Phase Anions. The Energetics of Interaction between Cyande Ion and Brønsted Acids Determined from Ion Cyclotron Resonance Cyanide Exchange Equilibria. Journal of the Americal Chemical Society 109, 6230-6236 (1987).
  • Rodham, D.A., et al. Hydrogen Bonding in the Benzene-ammonia Dimer. Nature 362, 735-737 (1993).
  • Saykally, R.J. & Blake, G.A. Molecular Interactions and Hydrogen Bond Tunneling Dynamics: Some New Perspectives. Science 259, 1570-1575 (1993).
  • Siggel, M.R.F., Thomas, T.D. & Saethre, L.J. Ab Initio Calculation of Brønsted Acidities. Journal of the American Chemical Society 110, 91-96 (1988).

Data Sources

  • Aldrich. Catalog Handbook of Fine Chemicals 1994-1995 (Aldrich, Milwaukee, 1994).
  • Aylward, G.H. & Findlay, T.J.V. SI Chemical Data 1-127 (John Wiley & Sons Australasia, Sydney, 1971).
  • Brady, J.E. & Holum, J.R. Chemistry: The Study of Matter and Its Changes 1-1150 (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1993).
  • Brock, W.H. in The Fontana History of Chemistry (Fontana, London, 1992).
  • Butler, J.N. Solubility and pH Calculations 1-104 (Addison-Wesley, Reading MA, 1964).
  • Cotton, F.A. & Wilkinson, G. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry 1-1136 (Interscience, New York, 1966).
  • Diamond, D. & Hantarry, V.C.A. Spreadsheet Applications in Chemistry using Microsoft Excel 1-244 (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1997).
  • Gaeng, P. Excel for Science and Technology 1-329 (Abacus, Grand Rapids, MI, 1993).
  • Gordus, A.A. Chemical Equilibrium. I. The Thermodynamic Equilibrium Constant. Journal of Chemical Education 68, 138-140 (1991).
  • Gordus, A.A. Chemical Equilibrium. II. Deriving an Exact Equilibrium Equation. Journal of Chemical Education 68, 215-217 (1991).
  • Gordus, A.A. Chemical Equilibrium. III. A Few maths Tricks. Journal of Chemical Education 68, 291-293 (1991).
  • Gordus, A.A. Chemical Equilibrium. IV. Weak Acids and Bases. Journal of Chemical Education 68, 397-399 (1991).
  • Gordus, A.A. Chemical Equilibrium. V. Seeing an Endpoint in Acid-Base Titrations. Journal of Chemical Education 68, 566-568 (1991).
  • Gordus, A.A. Chemical Equilibrium. VI. Buffer Solutions. Journal of Chemical Education 68, 656-658 (1991).
  • Gordus, A.A. Chemical Equilibrium. VII. Approximations in Acid-Base Titrations. Journal of Chemical Education 68, 759-761 (1991).
  • Gordus, A.A. Chemical Equilibrium. VIII. Precipitates. Journal of Chemical Education 68, 927-930 (1991).
  • Hoffmann, R. Building Bridges Between Inorganic and Organic Chemistry (Nobel Lecture). Angewandte Chemie, International Edition in English 21, 711-800 (1982).
  • Lind, G. Teaching Inorganic Nomenclature. Journal of Chemical Education 69, 613-614 (1992).
  • Loewenthal, H.J.E. Guide for the Perplexed Organic Experimentalist 1-174 (Heyden, London, 1980).
  • The Merck Index, An Encyclopedia of Chemicals and Drugs (Merck & Co., Inc., Rathway, NJ, 1968).
  • The Oxford English Dictionary (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1989).

Hard Soft Acid Base Principle

  • Ho, T.-L. The Hard Soft Acids Bases (HSAB) Principle and Organic Chemistry. Chemical Reviews 75, 1-20 (1975).
  • Ishida, K., Kadowaki, S. & Yonezawa, T. New Scale of the Ionic Character of the Chemical Bond Using Multiconfigurational SCF Wave Functions. Bullitin of the Chemical Society of Japan 54, 967-970 (1981).
  • Klopman, G. Chemical Reactivity and the Concept of Charge- and Frontier- Controlled Reactions. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 90, 223-234 (1968).
  • Pearson, R.G. Absolute electrronegativity and hardness. Chemistry in Britain 27, 444-447 (1991).
  • Pearson, R.G. Acids and Bases. Science 151, 172-177 (1966).
  • Pearson, R.G. Chemical Hardness: Applications from Molecules to Solids 1-195 (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.New York. Chichester.Brisbane.Singapore.Toronto, 1997).
  • Pearson, R.G. Equilibrium Constants, Oxidation Potentials, and Nucleoplilicity in SN2 Displacements. Journal of Organic Chemistry 52, 2131-2136 (1987).
  • Pearson, R.G. Hard and Soft Acids and Bases. Chemistry in Britain 3, 103-107 (1967).
  • Pearson, R.G. Hard and Soft Acids and Bases, HSAB, Part 1 Fundamental principles. Journal of Chemical Education 45, 581-587 (1968).
  • Pearson, R.G. Hard and Soft Acids and Bases. Journal of the American Chemical Society 85, 3533-3539 (1963).
  • Pearson, R.G. Ionization Potentials and Electron Affinities in Aqueous Solution. Journal of the Americal Chemical Society 108, 6109-6114 (1986).
  • Pearson, R.G. Recent Advances in the Concept of Hard and Soft Acids and Bases. Journal of Chemical Education 64, 561-567 (1987).
  • Pearson, R.G. & Songstad, J. Symbiotic Effects in Nucleophilic Displacement Reactions on Carbon. Journal of Organic Chemistry 32, 2899-2900 (1967).
  • Irving, H., Williams, R.J.P., J.Chem.Soc., 3192-3210, (1953)
  • Ahrland, S, Chatt, J, and Davies, N.R., Quart. Rev. Chem. Soc. 12, 265-276 (1958)

Computer Modelling

  • Aduldecha, S., et al. The Use of the Desktop Molecular Modeller Software in Teaching of Structural Chemistry. Journal of Chemical Education 68, 576-584 (1991).
  • Boyd, D.B. & Lipkowitz, K.B. Molecular Mechanics: The Method and its Underlying Philosophy. Journal of Chemical Education 59, 269-274 (1982).
  • Clark, T. A Handbook of Computational Chemistry (J.Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 1985).
  • Cox, P.J. Molecular Mechanics: Illustrations of Its Applications. Journal of Chemical Education 59, 275-277 (1982).
  • Cremer, D. & Gauss, J. Thoertical Determination of Molecular Structure and Conformation. 20. Reevaluation of the Strain Energies of Cyclopropane and Cyclobutane — CC and CH Bond Energies, 1,3-Interactions and sigma-Aromaticity. Journal of the Americal Chemical Society 108, 7467-7477 (1986).
  • DeFrees, D.J., Raghavachari, K., Schlegel, H.B. & Pople, J.A. Effect of Electron Correlation of Theoretical Equilibrium Geometries. 2. Comparison of Third-Order Pertibation and Configuration Interaction Results with Experiment. Journal of the Americal Chemical Society 104, 5576-5580 (1982).
  • Hinchliffe, A. Computational Quantum Chemistry 1-112 (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1988).
  • Hirst, D.M. A Computational; Approach to Chemistry (Blackwell Scientific Publications, ).
  • Salatin, T.D. & Jorgensen, W.L. Computer-Assisted Mechanistic Evaluation of Organic Reactions. 1. Overview. Journal of Organic Chemistry 45, 2043-2051 (1980).
  • Sauers, R.R. Molecular Mechanics in the Undergraduate Curriculum. Journal of Chemical Education 68, 816-818 (1991).
  • Schaefer, H.F. Methylene: A Paradigm for Computational Chemistry. Science 231, 1100-1107 (1986).
  • Stewart, J.J.P. MOPAC A Semiempirical Molecular Orbital Program. Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design 4, 1-105 (1990).
  • Wavefunction. PC Spartan Plus, Tutorial and Users Guide 1-183 (Wavefunction, Irvine, CA, 1997).
  • Wissner, A. HMO Version 1.1: A Hückel Molecular Orbital Program for the Macintosh. Tetrahedron Computer Methodology 3, 63-71 (1990).
  • Wolley, G. Must a Molecule Have Shape? New Scientist , 53-57 (1988).

π-Systems and Aromaticity

  • Aihara, J.-I. Why Aromatic Compounds Are Stable. Scientific American , 44-50 (1992).
  • Cooper, D.L., Gerratt, J. & Raimondi, M. The Electronic Structure of The Benzene Molecule. Nature 323, 699-701 (1986).
  • Salem, L. The Molecular Orbital Theory of Conjugated Systems (W.A. Benjamin Inc., New York, 1966).
  • Shaik, S.S., Hiberty, P.C., Lefour, J.-M. & Ohanessian, G. Is Delocalisation a Driving Fource in Chemistry? Benzene, Allyl Radical, Cyclobutadiene, and their Isoelectronic Species. Journal of the Americal Chemical Society 109, 363-374 (1987).


Textbooks

  • Atkins, P.W. in Physical Chemistry(Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1986).
  • Isaacs, N.S. Physical Organic Chemistry 1-828 (Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow, 1987).
  • Huheey, J.E. Inorganic Chemistry (Harper International SI Edition, Cambridge, ).
  • Jolly, W.L. Modern Inorganic Chemistry 1-610 (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1984).
  • Joule, J.A. & Smith, G.F. Heterocyclic Chemistry 1-378 (Van Nostrand, London, 1978).
  • March, J. Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanism and Structure 1-1328 (McGraw-Hill Kogakusha, Ltd, Toyko, 1977).
  • Norman, R.O.C. Principles of Organic Synthesis 1-800 (Chapman and Hall, London, 1978).
  • Orchin, M., Kaplan, F., Macomber, R.S., Wilson, R.M. & Zimmer, H. The Vocabulary of Organic Chemistry (1981).
  • Parkins, A.W. & Poller, R.C. An Introduction to Organometallic Chemistry 1-252 (Macmillan, Basingstoke, 1986).
  • Pauling, L. The Nature of the Chemical Bond 1-644 (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1960).
  • Pine, S.H. in Organic Chemistry 98-105 (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1987).

Reactions

  • Albright, T.A. Structure and Reactivity in Organometallic Chemistry, an Applied Molecular Orbital Approach. Tetrahedron , 1339-1388 (1982).
  • Avramovitch, B. & Rappoport, Z. Steroselectivity of Substitution of Good Nucleofuges at the Stereoconvergence Region as a Tool for Investigating the Rapid Step of Nucleophilic Vinylic Substitution. Journal of the Americal Chemical Society 110, 911-922 (1988).
  • Baggott, J. The Simplest Chemical Reaction. New Scientist , 28-33 (1990).
  • Bansal, R.K. Organic Reaction Mechanisms 1-492 (Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 1986).
  • Bartoli, G. & Todesco, P.E. Nucleophilic Substitution. Linear Free Energy Relationships between Reactivity and Physical Properties of Leaving Groups and Substrates. Accounts of Chemical Research 10, 125-132 (1977).
  • Biellmann, J.-F. Organic Reactions 1-1 (1982).
  • Blake, J.F. & Jorgensen, W.L. Ab Inito Study of the Displacement Reactions of Chloride Ion with Formyl and Acetyl Chloride. Journal of the American Chemical Society 109, 3856-3861 (1987).
  • Bordwell, F.G. & Hughes, D.L. Base-Catalysed Isomerisation of 3-Butenenitrile. Relative Nucleophilicities of Carbanions, Nitranions, Oxyanions and Thioanions towards Hydrogen. Journal of the American Chemical Society 107, 4737-4744 (1985).
  • Bosnich, B. Asymmetric Catalysis. Chemistry in Britain , 808-811 (1984).
  • Bruce, M.I. Cyclometallation Reactions. Angewe. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 16, 73-86 (1977).
  • Burnier, J.S. & Jorgensen, W.L. Computer-Assisted Mechanistic Evaluation of Organic Reactions. 7. Six-Electron Cycloadditions. Journal of Organic Chemistry 48, 3923-3941 (1983).
  • Cambell, M.L. & Waite, B.A. The Ka Values of Water and Hydronium ion for Conparison with Other Acids. Journal of Chemical Education 67, 386-388 (1990).
  • Casey, C.P. Organorhenium Chemistry. Science 259, 1552-1558 (1993).
  • Cawley, J.J. The Determination of "Apparent" pKa's. Journal of Chemical Education 70, 596-598 (1993).
  • Corey, E.J. & Cheng, X.-M. The Logic of Chemical Synthesis 1-436 (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1989).
  • Crowley, P.J., Leach, M.R., Meth-Cohn, O. & Wakefield, B.J. Ring Opening of an Alkylidenedithiane via Thiophilic Attack by Organolithium Compounds. Journal of Chemical Reesearch (S) , 128 (1992).
  • Evanseck, J.D., Blake, J.F. & Jorgensen, W.L. Ab Initio Study of the SN2 Reactions of OH- and OOH- with CH3Cl. Journal of the American Chemical Society 109, 2349--2353 (1987).
  • Fieser, L.F. & Fieser, M. Reagents for Organic Synthesis (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1968).
  • Fleming, I. Frontier Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions 1-249 (John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 1976).
  • Fleming, I, Pericyclic Reactions, Oxford Chemistry Primers 67, OUP, (1999)
  • Fujita, S. Graphic Characterization and Taxonomy of Organic Reactions. Journal of Chemical Education 67, 290-293 (1990).
  • Grant, G.J., Mauldin, P.L. & Setzer, W.N. Transition Metal Complexes with 1,4,7-Trithiacyclononane. Journal of Chemical Education 68, 605-606 (1991).
  • Gröbel, B.-T. & Seebach, D. Umpolung of the Reactivity of Carbonyl Compounds Through Sulfur Containing Reagents. Synthesis , 357-395 (1977).
  • Hall, H.K., Jr. Towards an Organic Chemist's Periodic Table. Journal of Chemical Education 57, 49-51 (1980).
  • Hancock, R.D. Chelate Ring Size and Metal Ion Selection. Journal of Chemical Education 69, 615-621 (1992).
  • Harwood, L.M. Polar Rearrangements 1-96 (Oxford Science Publications, Oxford, 1992).
  • Haws, E.J. & Hill, R.R. The Structures and Reactions of Simple Aromatic Heterocyclic Compounds 1-64 (The English Universities Press Ltd., London, 1971).
  • Heck, R.F. A Synthesis of Diaryl Ketones from Arylmercuric Salts. Journal of the American Chemical Society 90, 5546-5548 (1968).
  • Heck, R.F. Allylation of Aromatic Compounds with Organopalladium Salts. Journal of the American Chemical Society 90, 5531-5534 (1968).
  • Heck, R.F. Aromatic Haloethylation with Palladium and Copper Halides. Journal of the American Chemical Society 90, 5538-5542 (1968).
  • Heck, R.F. Arylation, Methylation, and Carboxyalkylation of Olefins by Group VIII Metal Derivatives. Journal of the American Chemical Society 90, 5518-5526 (1968).
  • Heck, R.F. The Addition of Alkyl- and Arylpalladium Chlorides to Conjugated Dienes. Journal of the American Chemical Society 90, 5542-5546 (1968).
  • Heck, R.F. The Arylation of Allylic Alcohols with Organopalladium Compounds. A New Synthesis of 3-Aryl Aldehydes and Ketones. Journal of the American Chemical Society 90, 5526-5531 (1968).
  • Heck, R.F. The Palladium-Catalysed Arylation of Enol Esters, Ethes, and Halides. A New Synthesis of 2-Aryl Aldehydes and Ketones. Journal of the American Chemical Society 90, 5535-5538 (1968).
  • Hendewerk, M.L., Frey, R. & Dixon, D. Effect of Substituting Silicon for Carbon on Molecular Proton Affinities. Journal of Physical Chemistry 87, 2026-2032 (1983).
  • Hendrickson, J.B. Fragmentations and Rearrangements in Organic Synthesis. Journal of the American Chemical Society 108, 6748-6756 (108).
  • Hertz, H.G., Braun, B.M., Müler, K.J. & Maurer, R. What is the Physical Significance of the Pictures Representing the Grotthus H+ Conductance Mechanism. Journal of Chemical Education 64, 777-784 (1987).
  • Hopkinson, A.C. & Lien, M.H. A Theoretical Study of the Effects of Silyl and Methyl Groups on Acid-Base Reactions at Oxygen, Nitrogen and Carbon. Journal of Molecular Structure 92, 153-166 (1983).
  • Houk, K.N. & Al, E. Theory and Modeling of Stereoselective Organic Reactions. Science 231, 1108-1117 (1986).
  • Huchings, G. Catalysis in Intracrystalline Space. Chemistry in Britain , 1006-1009 (1992).
  • Ibbotson, A. & Wells, P. Entantioselective Hydrogenation. Chemistry in Britain , 1004-1005 (1992).
  • Iddon, B., Meth-Cohn, O., Scriven, E.F.V. & Suschitzky, H. Developments in Arylnitrene Chemistry: Syntheses and Mechanism. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 18, 900-917 (1979).
  • Ingold. Structure and Mechanism in Organic Chemistry (Cornell University Press, Ithaca NY, 1969).
  • Jansson, R. Organic Electrosynthesis. C&EN , 43-57 (1984).
  • Kahn, S.D., Pau, C.F., Overman, L.E. & Hehre, W.J. Modelling Chemical Reactivity. 1. Regioselectivity of Diels-Alder Cycloadditions of Electron-Rich Dienes with Electron-Deficient Dienophiles. Journal of the Americal Chemical Society 108, 7381-7396 (1986).
  • Klumpp, G.W. Reactivity in Organic Chemistry 1-502 (Wiley-Interscience, Cichester, 1978).
  • Knowles, W.S. Application of Organometallic Catalysis to the Commercial Production of L-DOPA. Journal of Chemical Education 63, 222-225 (1986).
  • Kock, W., Frenking, G., Gauss, J., Cremer, D. & Collins, J.R. Helium Chemistry: Theoretical Predictions and Experimental Challange. Journal of the American Chemical Society 109, 5917-5934 (1987).
  • Kolb, K.E. & Kolb, D. Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide. Journal of Chemical Education 60, 57-59 (1983).
  • Liotta, D.C. & Volmer, M. Organic Syntheseses, Reaction Guide 1-854 (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991).
  • Lowry, T.H. & Richardson, K.S. in Mechanism and Theory in Organic Chemistry 293-296 (Harper-Row, New York, 1987).
  • Mackie, R.K., Smith, D.M. & Aitken, R.A. Guidebook to Organic Synthesis 1-387 (Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow, 1990).
  • Maun, T.H. Wolf and Lamb Chemistry. Science 217, 719-721 (1982).
  • Mayer, H., Schade, C., Rubow, M. & Schneider, R. Control of Relative Electrophilicity of Alkylating Agents by Variation of the Lewis Acid Concentration. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 26, 1029-1030 (1987).
  • McMurry, T.J., Raymond, K.N. & Smith, P.H. Molecular Recognition and Metal Ion Template Synthesis. Science 244, 938-943 (1989).
  • Mehta, G. Stepwise Metathesis. Journal of Chemical Education 59, 313-316 (1982).
  • Meyer, G.R. Conjugate and Nonconjugate Reduction with LiAlH4 and NaBH4. Journal of Chemical Education 58, 628-630 (1981).
  • Milgrom, L. Chemists Clock Chemical Reaction. New Scientist , 32 (1988).
  • Mok, K.-L. & Nya, M.J. Rationisation of Cycloaddition Behaviour by Use of Hückel Frontier Molecular Orbitals. Journal of the Chemical Society Perkin I , 1810-1818 (1975).
  • Moody, C.J. & Whitham, G.H. Reactive Intermediates 1-89 (Oxford Science Publications, Oxford, 1992).
  • Murdoch, J.R. What is the Rate-Limiting Step of a Multi-Step Reaction? Journal of Chemical Education 58, 32-36 (1981).
  • Nicolaou, K. The Magic of Enediyne Chemistry. Chemistry in Britain , 33-36 (1994).
  • Rossi, R.A., Pierini, A.B. & Palacios, S.M. The SRN1 Mechanism as a Route to Nucleophilic Substitution on Aryl Halides. Journal of Chemical Education 66, 720-722 (1989).
  • Schwartz, J. & Labinger, J.A. Patterns in Organometallic Chemistry with Application in Organic Synthesis. Journal of Chemical Education 57, 170-175 (1980).
  • Simkins, N.S. 100 Modern Reagents 1-203 (The Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 1989).
  • Smith, M.B. Organic Synthesis 1-1595 (McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1994).
  • Stirling, C.J.M. Leaving Groups and Nucleofugality in Elimination and other Organic Reactions. Accounts of Chemical Research 12, 198-203 (1979).
  • Sunko, D.E., Jursic, B. & Ladika, M. Leaving Group Rate Ratios in Solvolytic Displacement Reactions. The Effect of Neighboring Sulfur. Journal of Organic Chemistry 52, 2299-2301 (1987).
  • Svehla, G. Vogel's Textbook of Macro and Semimicro Inorganic Analysis 1-605 (Longman, London, 1979).
  • Sykes, P. A Guidebook to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry 1-416 (Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow, 1986).
  • Thea, S. & Williams, A. Measurment of Effective Charge in an Organic Reaction in Solution. Chemical Society Reviews 15, 125-140 (1986).
  • Thomas, S.E. Organic Synthesis: The Roles of Boron and Silicon 1-92 (Oxford Science Publications, Oxford, 1991).
  • Trost, B.M. Organopalladium Intermediates in Organic Synthesis. Tetrahedron 33, 2615-2649 (1977).
  • Ward, R.S. Selectivity versus Specificity. Chemistry in Britain , 803-804 (1991).
  • Warren, S. Designing Organic Syntheses: A Programmed Introduction to the Synthon Approach 1-285 (J.Wiley and Sons, Chichester . New York . Brisbane . Totonto, 1978).
  • Warren, S. Workbook for Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach (J.Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 1982).
  • Weat, R. & Barton, T.J. Organosilicon Chemistry. Part I. Journal of Chemical Education 57, 165-169 (1980).
  • Weat, R. & Barton, T.J. Organosilicon Chemistry. Part II. Journal of Chemical Education 57, 334-340 (1980).
  • Wel, H.v.d., Nibberling, N.M.M., Sheldon, J.C., Hayes, R.N. & Bowie, J.H. Nucleophilic Substitution in the Gas Phase. The reactions of Alkoxide-Alcohol Negative Ions with Boron, Carbon, Silicon, and Titanium Alkoxides. An Ion Cyclotron and ab Initio Study. Journal of the Americal Chemical Society 109, 5823-5828 (1987).
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Electronegativity PT Paper
Afterword

© Mark R. Leach 1999-


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