Thermochemistry Synthlet


The feasibility of a chemical reaction can be determined from the enthalpy, H, entropy, S, and the Gibbs' free energy, G.
Sub select:
   or    Kelvin        
List of Thermochemical Reactions Ordered by Gibbs' Free Energy ΔG
Combustion of butane to carbon dioxide and steam
    2       +       13 8       +         10
ΔrH = -5,314.0 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.311 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -5,406.6 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = >10100
No equilibrium temperature: the reaction is feasible at all temperatures
Select this reaction for further analysis
Combustion of acetone
           +       4 3       +         3
ΔrH = -1,657.9 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.187 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -1,713.5 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = >10100
No equilibrium temperature: the reaction is feasible at all temperatures
Select this reaction for further analysis
Oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen and steam
    4       +       3 2       +         6
ΔrH = -1,266.5 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.131 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -1,305.5 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = >10100
No equilibrium temperature: the reaction is feasible at all temperatures
Select this reaction for further analysis
Oxidation of ammonia to nitric oxide with hydrogen peroxide
    2       +       5 2       +         8
ΔrH = -1,006.7 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.210 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -1,069.3 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = >10100
No equilibrium temperature: the reaction is feasible at all temperatures
Select this reaction for further analysis
Oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen with hydrogen peroxide
    2       +       3       +         6
ΔrH = -991.1 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.060 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -1,008.8 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = >10100
No equilibrium temperature: the reaction is feasible at all temperatures
Select this reaction for further analysis
Oxidation of ammonia to nitric oxide
    4       +       5 4       +         6
ΔrH = -905.5 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.181 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -959.3 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = >10100
No equilibrium temperature: the reaction is feasible at all temperatures
Select this reaction for further analysis
Combustion of methane to carbon dioxide and steam
           +       2       +         2
ΔrH = -802.3 kJmol-1
ΔrS = -0.005 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -800.8 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = >10100
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 156,097Kelvin
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Radical coupling of methane radicals to ethane
           +      
ΔrH = -376.1 kJmol-1
ΔrS = -0.159 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -328.7 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 4.18 x 10+57
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 2,368Kelvin
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Decomposition of ozone to oxygen
    2 3
ΔrH = -285.4 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.138 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -326.4 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 1.62 x 10+57
No equilibrium temperature: the reaction is feasible at all temperatures
Select this reaction for further analysis
Partial combustion of carbon to carbon monoxide
    2       +       2
ΔrH = -221.1 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.179 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -274.3 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 1.21 x 10+48
No equilibrium temperature: the reaction is feasible at all temperatures
Select this reaction for further analysis
Acetylene decomposing to its elements
     2       +        
ΔrH = -226.7 kJmol-1
ΔrS = -0.059 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -209.2 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 4.69 x 10+36
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 3,857Kelvin
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Hydrogen radical plus oxygen gives hydrogen peroxide radical
           +      
ΔrH = -215.9 kJmol-1
ΔrS = -0.091 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -188.8 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 1.24 x 10+33
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 2,376Kelvin
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Carbon monoxide + hydrogen gives methane + water equilibrium
           +       3       +        
ΔrH = -250.1 kJmol-1
ΔrS = -0.334 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -150.7 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 2.61 x 10+26
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 750Kelvin
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The Contact process
    2       +       2
ΔrH = -197.8 kJmol-1
ΔrS = -0.188 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -141.7 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 6.98 x 10+24
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 1,052Kelvin
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Hydrogenation to ethylene to ethane
           +      
ΔrH = -136.9 kJmol-1
ΔrS = -0.121 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -101.0 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 5.03 x 10+17
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 1,135Kelvin
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Hydrogenation of 1-butene
           +      
ΔrH = -126.0 kJmol-1
ΔrS = -0.126 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -88.4 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 3.15 x 10+15
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 999Kelvin
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Acetaldehyde reacting with water to give acetic acid and ethanol
    2       +             +        
ΔrH = -91.8 kJmol-1
ΔrS = -0.070 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -71.0 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 2.74 x 1012
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 1,314Kelvin
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Hydrolysis of carbon disulfide
           +       2       +         2
ΔrH = -40.8 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.096 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -69.5 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 1.54 x 1012
No equilibrium temperature: the reaction is feasible at all temperatures
Select this reaction for further analysis
Formation of methane from its elements
           +       2
ΔrH = -74.8 kJmol-1
ΔrS = -0.081 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -50.7 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 7.76 x 108
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 925Kelvin
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Haber ammonia synthesis
           +       3 2
ΔrH = -92.2 kJmol-1
ΔrS = -0.199 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -33.0 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 6.07 x 105
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 464Kelvin
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Carbon monnoxide plus water gives hydrogen plus carbon dioxide equilibrium
           +             +        
ΔrH = +2.9 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.077 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -20.0 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 3,270
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 37Kelvin
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Dimerisation of NO2 to N2O4
           +      
ΔrH = -58.4 kJmol-1
ΔrS = -0.176 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = -6.0 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 11.5
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 332Kelvin
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Hydrogen + iodine in equilibrium with hydrogen iodide
           +       2
ΔrH = +53.0 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.166 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = +3.4 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 0.255
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 318Kelvin
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Water-steam equilibrium
    
ΔrH = +44.0 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.119 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = +8.6 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 0.0314
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 370Kelvin
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Decomposing butane to its elements
     4       +         5
ΔrH = +126.2 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.366 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = +17.0 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 1.03 x 10-3
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 345Kelvin
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Hydrogenation of benzene
           +       3
ΔrH = -86.3 kJmol-1
ΔrS = -0.361 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = +21.3 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 1.85 x 10-4
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 239Kelvin
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Reduction of iron(III) oxide with hydrogen
           +       3 2       +         3
ΔrH = +98.7 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.142 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = +56.5 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 1.23 x 10-10
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 697Kelvin
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Carbon plus water shift reaction
           +             +        
ΔrH = +131.3 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.134 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = +91.4 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 9.45 x 10-17
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 981Kelvin
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Carbon plus carbon dioxide gives carbon monoxide equilibrium
           +       2
ΔrH = +172.5 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.176 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = +120.0 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 9.09 x 10-22
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 981Kelvin
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Decomposition of calcium carbonate to CaO and CO2
           +        
ΔrH = +178.3 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.161 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = +130.4 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 1.37 x 10-23
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 1,110Kelvin
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Cracking butane to ethylene and hydrogen
     2       +        
ΔrH = +230.7 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.260 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = +153.3 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 1.34 x 10-27
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 889Kelvin
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Oxidation of nitrogen to nitric oxide
           +       2
ΔrH = +180.5 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.025 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = +173.1 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 4.53 x 10-31
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 7,287Kelvin
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Dimerising methane to acetylene and hydrogen
    2       +         3
ΔrH = +376.4 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.220 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = +310.7 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 3.54 x 10-55
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 1,707Kelvin
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Dioxygen (O2) ozone (O3) equilibrium
    3 2
ΔrH = +285.4 kJmol-1
ΔrS = -0.138 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = +326.4 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 6.16 x 10-58
No equilibrium temperature: the reaction is feasible at no temperature
Select this reaction for further analysis
Partial oxidation of methane to acetylene, H2 and CO
    6       +       2       +         2       +         10
ΔrH = +681.3 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.781 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = +448.4 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 2.51 x 10-79
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 872Kelvin
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Decomposing steam into its elements
    2 2       +        
ΔrH = +483.6 kJmol-1
ΔrS = +0.089 kJK-1mol-1
ΔrG 298K = +457.2 kJmol-1
Keq 298K = 7.38 x 10-81
ΔG° = 0.0 (zero, and so the system is at equilibrium) at a temperature of 5,444Kelvin
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Why Reactions Occur
Timeline of Structural Theory

© Mark R. Leach 1999-


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